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Table 3 Factors associated with proteinuria

From: Renal abnormalities and its associated factors among school-aged children living in Schistosoma mansoni endemic communities in Northwestern Tanzania

Variable Yes (n, %) No (n, %) Univariate, OR [95% CI] p value Multivariate, OR [95% CI] p value
Age
 6–9 years 55 (13.7) 348 (86.4) 1.0    
 10–13 years 16 (15.4) 88 (84.6) 1.2 [0.6–2.1] 0.649 0.8 [0.4–1.6] 0.520
Sex
 Female 29 (11.4) 225 (88.6) 1.0    
 Male 42 (16.6) 211 (83.4) 1.5 [0.9–2.6] 0.094 1.5 [0.9–2.5] 0.129
Water source
 Tap 26 (12.8) 177 (87.2) 1.0    
 Lake water 45 (14.8) 259 (85.2) 1.2 [0.7–2.0] 0.526 1.1 [0.6–2.1] 0.694
Contact to lake within 1 week
 No 11 (14.0) 69 (86.0) 1.0    
 Yes 60 (14.0) 367 (86.0) 1.0 [0.5–2.0] 0.943 0.9 [0.4–2.1] 0.831
Schistosomiasis by cca
 No 7 (3.9) 174 (96.1) 1.0    
 Yes 64 (19.6) 262 (80.4) 6.1 [2.7–13.6] < 0.001 4.9 [2.1–11.2] < 0.001
RBCs in urine
 No RBCs 53 (11.3) 417 (88.7) 1.0    
 RBCs in urine 18 (48.6) 19 (51.4) 7.4 [3.7–15.1] < 0.001 5.3 [2.5–11.2] < 0.001
Malaria
 Negative 63 (15.0) 356 (85.0) 1.0    
 Positive 8 (9.9) 80 (90.1) 0.6 [0.3–1.2] 0.149 0.8 [0.3–1.7] 0.528
Nutrition status
 Normal 55 (13.5) 352 (86.5) 1.0    
 Moderate malnutrition 10 (15.2) 56 (84.9) 1.1 [0.6–2.4] 0.720 1.0 [0.4–2.1] 0.967
 Severe malnutrition 6 (17.7) 28 (82.3) 1.4 [0.5–3.5] 0.504 1.0 [0.3–2.8] 0.992
Haematobium
 Negative 68 (14.0) 431 (86.0) 1.0    
 Positive 3 (37.5) 5 (86.0) 3.8 [0.9–16.3] 0.072 3.5 [0.6–19.8] 0.173