Skip to main content

Table 1 Operational definitions of key terms and derived variables

From: How are the village health volunteers deliver malaria testing and treatment services and what are the challenges they are facing? A mixed methods study in Myanmar

Undifferentiated fever The occurrence of fever in a person in the last 2 weeks
Malaria case Occurrence of malaria infection in whose blood the presence of malaria parasites (Plasmodium) has been confirmed by a diagnostic test (rapid diagnostic test/microscopy).
Basic health staff (BHS) They are salaried employees working in sub-center/rural health center/township health departments (urban and rural areas) and are responsible for malaria prevention, control, and treatment. They are also involved in the control and prevention of other diseases such as tuberculosis, maternal and child health, other vector-borne diseases and immunization.
Village health volunteer (VHV) They are incentive-based community volunteers and deployed in hard-to-reach areas to provide screening, diagnosis, and treatment of malaria in the communities. They are involved in providing health education, malaria diagnosis and treatment to the communities, and referral of severe cases to higher health facilities. VHVs are employed by the NMCP and other international nongovernmental organizations. NMCP provides 60,000 MMK (US$50) as quarterly incentive for the services delivered.
Malaria species Malaria species refers to the type of malaria parasite: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, others (Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale), and mixed infections
Severe malaria (complicated malaria) Patients with complicated malaria, also known as severe malaria, are categorized when the patients develop the following signs and symptoms: cannot walk, sit, or stand without help; vomit and cannot take a medicine; high-grade fever; severe anemia or pallor; yellow coloration of the sclera or jaundice; behavioral changes; confusion; anger; drowsiness; slurred speech; coma; breathlessness and tightness of the chest; cold and clammy extremities and shock; reduced urine output or anuria; hematuria or other bleeding manifestations; and fever continuation for > 72 h of medication
Patients with uncomplicated malaria will not develop any symptoms and signs of severe malaria
Appropriate treatment Treatment including both schizonticidal and gametocidal drugs according to the national malaria treatment guidelines
Other malaria care providers/source of malaria cases They included basic health staff, Mobile Medical Unit, malaria clinic, screening point, active case detection, intensified case detection