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Table 4 Risk factors associated to seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women group

From: Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in Iranian women and risk factors of the disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Demographic factors Total individuals Positive cases Pooled estimation (%) I 2 P valuea
Age 0.004
 ≤30 years 5332 2041 34 (95% CI = 26 to 43) 97.69
 >30 years 1414 772 53 (95% CI = 45 to 61) 87.70
Contact with cat 0.005
 Yes 1779 787 44 (95% CI = 36 to 52) 89.17
 No 2410 716 27 (95% CI = 20 to 34) 92.53
Contact with soil 0.92
 Yes 63 27 42 (95% CI = 30 to 54) 92.72
 No 929 310 33 (95% CI = 30 to 36) 92.72
Meat consumption 0.4
 Undercooked 1450 603 41 (95% CI = 28 to 53) 95.05
 Cooked 1814 645 35 (95% CI = 29 to 42) 88.62
Raw vegetable/fruit consumption 0.46
 Yes 1463 570 39 (95% CI = 25 to 54) 96.90
 No 520 164 31 (95% CI = 26 to 36) 29.12
Washing vegetable/fruit 0.64
 Water 847 358 39 (95% CI = 21 to 58) 96.85
 Antiseptic 602 212 34 (95% CI = 23 to 47) 88.09
Residence 0.55
 Rural 1796 762 47 (95% CI = 38 to 55) 91.72
 Urban 2361 1017 43 (95% CI = 34 to 52) 94.57
Occupational group 0.94
 Employee 143 68 47 (95% CI = 35 to 59) 48.56
 Housewife 1359 594 47 (95% CI = 39 to 55) 86.58
Educational status 0.67
 Illiterate 329 108 34 (95% CI = 25 to 44) 63.80  
 Junior/senior 1617 665 39 (95% CI = 32 to 47) 88.35  
 High school/diploma 1410 457 31 (95% CI = 26 to 36) 73.55  
 University 493 189 36 (95% CI = 27 to 45) 76.63  
Gestation age 0.001
 1st trimester 570 258 46 (95% CI = 40 to 51) 46.05  
 2nd trimester 491 192 39 (95% CI = 35 to 43) 0  
 3rd trimester 594 193 32 (95% CI = 29 to 36) 0  
Number of pregnancy 0.42
 Null gravid 363 143 41 (95% CI = 23 to 61) 92.76  
 Multi-gravid 452 228 53 (95% CI = 36 to 69) 92.16  
History of abortion 0.22
 Yes 4285 1666 44 (95% CI = 37 to 50) 94.60  
 No 3058 1170 38 (95% CI = 32 to 44) 90.93  
  1. aMeta-regression analysis