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  1. Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis. Leptospirosis incidence (LI) in Sri Lanka is high. Infected animals excrete leptospires into the environment via their urine. Survival of leptospires in the environment u...

    Authors: N. D. B. Ehelepola, Kusalika Ariyaratne, A. M. S. M. C. M. Aththanayake, Kamalanath Samarakoon and H. M. Arjuna Thilakarathna
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:43
  2. Laboratory facilities for etiological diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection are limited in developing countries; therefore, patients are treated empirically, and the epidemiology of the pathogens...

    Authors: Cuong Chi Ngo, Shungo Katoh, Futoshi Hasebe, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Tomoko Hiraoka, Sugihiro Hamaguchi, Anh Thi Kim Le, Anh Thi Hien Nguyen, Anh Duc Dang, Chris Smith, Lay-Myint Yoshida, Cuong Duy Do, Thuy Thi Thanh Pham and Koya Ariyoshi
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:42
  3. Genotyping is a powerful tool for investigating outbreaks of infectious diseases and it can provide useful information such as identifying the source and route of transmission, and circulating strains involved...

    Authors: Francis Zeukeng, Anthony Ablordey, Solange E. Kakou-Ngazoa, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, David N’golo Coulibaly, Marie Thérèse Ngo Nsoga, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Jude Daiga Bigoga and Rousseau Djouaka
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:41
  4. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease typically associated with men working in remote, sylvatic environments. We sought to identify CL risk factors in a highly deforested region...

    Authors: Justin T. Lana, Andrés Mallipudi, Ernesto J. Ortiz, Jairo H. Arevalo, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas and William K. Pan
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:40
  5. The rapid spread of COVID-19 around the world has exposed some long-standing deficiencies in health systems, particularly in environments with low financial and medical resources. Most patients ill with COVID-...

    Authors: Nelson Ashinedu Ukor, Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi, Theogene Uwizeyimana, Attaullah Ahmadi, Osmond C. Ekwebelem, Precious Fadele and Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:39
  6. Although the scale of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic was relatively small in Japan compared with the rest of the world, the polarisation of areas into high- and low-COVID-19-incidence areas was ob...

    Authors: Junko Okumura
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:38

    The Correction to this article has been published in Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:61

  7. COVID-19 is still a major global threat for which vaccination remains the ultimate solution. Uganda reported 40,751 cases and 335 deaths as of 9 April 2021 and started its vaccination program among priority gr...

    Authors: Andrew Marvin Kanyike, Ronald Olum, Jonathan Kajjimu, Daniel Ojilong, Gabriel Madut Akech, Dianah Rhoda Nassozi, Drake Agira, Nicholas Kisaakye Wamala, Asaph Asiimwe, Dissan Matovu, Ann Babra Nakimuli, Musilim Lyavala, Patricia Kulwenza, Joshua Kiwumulo and Felix Bongomin
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:37
  8. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health concern. Previous research reveals that TB may have a seasonal peak during the spring and summer seasons in temperate climates; however, few studies have been co...

    Authors: Doris Uwamahoro, Aly Beeman, Vinay K. Sharma, Michael B. Henry, Stephanie Chow Garbern, Joseph Becker, Fairuz Despujos Harfouche, Alexis Perez Rogers, Kayla Kendric and Mindi Guptill
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:36
  9. Schistosomiasis and fascioliasis are digenean parasitic infections and are among the neglected tropical diseases that have both medical and veterinary importance. They are found mainly in areas having limited ...

    Authors: Teshome Bekana, Nega Berhe, Tadesse Eguale, Mulugeta Aemero, Girmay Medhin, Begna Tulu, Yirgalem G/hiwot, Song Liang, Wei Hu and Berhanu Erko
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:35
  10. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat and is increasingly prevalent among enteric pathogens in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the burden of multidrug-resistant org...

    Authors: Stephanie C. Garbern, Tzu-Chun Chu, Monique Gainey, Samika S. Kanekar, Sabiha Nasrin, Kexin Qu, Meagan A. Barry, Eric J. Nelson, Daniel T. Leung, Christopher H. Schmid, Nur H. Alam and Adam C. Levine
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:34
  11. Following the coup in Myanmar, humanitarian assistance, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control, must be implemented on the Thai-Myanmar border in the framework of international cooperation. The ...

    Authors: Jun Kobayashi, Nanae Aritaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Aya Tabata and Shinichiro Noda
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:33
  12. Aedes aegypti, which is widely distributed in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), is the primary vector of arboviral diseases. Chemical insecticides have been intensively used to eliminate mosquito-borne ...

    Authors: Takaki Shimono, Seiji Kanda, Pheophet Lamaningao, Yuki Murakami, Andrew Waleluma Darcy, Nobuyuki Mishima, Somchit Inthavongsack, Odai Soprasert, Thonelakhanh Xaypangna and Toshimasa Nishiyama
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:32
  13. A diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) does not mean that the disease will be treated successfully, since death may occur even among those who are known to the health services. Here, we aimed to analyze patient surv...

    Authors: Danielle Talita dos Santos, Luiz Henrique Arroyo, Yan Mathias Alves, Luana Seles Alves, Thais Zamboni Berra, Juliane de Almeida Crispim, Josilene Dália Alves, Denisse Andrea Cartagena Ramos, Jonas Bodini Alonso, Ivaneliza Simionato de Assis, Antônio Vieira Ramos, Elma Mathias Dessunti, Ione Carvalho Pinto, Pedro Fredemir Palha, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio and Carla Nunes
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:31
  14. The new coronavirus disease 2019 is an emerging respiratory disease caused by the highly contagious novel coronavirus which has currently overwhelmed the world. Realizing a comprehensive set of infection preve...

    Authors: Demisu Zenbaba, Biniyam Sahiledengle, Abulie Takele, Yohannes Tekalegn, Ahmed Yassin, Birhanu Tura, Adem Abdulkadir, Edao Tesa, Alelign Tasew, Gemechu Ganfure, Genet Fikadu, Kenbon Seyoum, Mohammedawel Abduku, Tesfaye Assefa, Garoma Morka, Makida Kemal…
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:30
  15. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the highest under-five mortality and low childhood immunization region in the world. Children in Sub-Saharan Africa are 15 times more likely to die than children from high-income c...

    Authors: Setegn Muche Fenta, Hailegebrael Birhan Biresaw, Kenaw Derebe Fentaw and Shewayiref Geremew Gebremichael
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:29
  16. Village health volunteers (VHVs) are responsible for providing primary care in the communities of Laos. Unlike other districts, in Xepon more than 90% of VHVs are male and therefore experience difficulties int...

    Authors: Noriko Toyama, Inthanomchanh Vongphoumy, Manami Uehara, Chika Sato, Futoshi Nishimoto, Kazuhiko Moji, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Kokoro Shirai, Tomomi Takayama, Misuzu Takahara, Yoko Tamashiro, Yumiko Endo, Sengchanh Kounnavong and Jun Kobayashi
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:28
  17. Handwashing with soap reduces diarrheal diseases burden considerably. However, the importance of handwashing in homes has received little attention in rural eastern Ethiopia. The effectiveness of handwashing m...

    Authors: Ephrem Tefera Solomon, Sirak Robele Gari, Helmut Kloos and Bezatu Mengistie Alemu
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:26
  18. Control of hookworm and other soil-transmitted helminth infections primarily relies on preventive chemotherapy using a single dose of albendazole/mebendazole drugs on high-risk groups. Herein, the efficacy of ...

    Authors: Wolelaw Bezie, Mulugeta Aemero, Yalewayiker Tegegne, Tegegne Eshetu, Ayenew Addisu, Meseret Birhanie, Adane Derso and Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:25
  19. Sophora exigua Craib. is commonly used in Thailand to reduce fever and increase postpartum breast milk production in women who have hypogalactia. However, there has been no report on the antioxidant and antimalar...

    Authors: Kantarakorn Kaewdana, Prapaporn Chaniad, Pitchanee Jariyapong, Arisara Phuwajaroanpong and Chuchard Punsawad
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:24
  20. The existence of multidrug-resistant organisms, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), is on rise across the globe and is becoming a severe problem. Knowledge of the prevalence and antibiogram pr...

    Authors: Aryatara Shilpakar, Mehraj Ansari, Kul Raj Rai, Ganesh Rai and Shiba Kumar Rai
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:23
  21. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis is a neglected tropical disease, thriving in environments of poverty and disadvantage. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and intensity of four soil transmitted helmin...

    Authors: Manar Eltantawy, Karin Orsel, Ashley Schroeder, Domenica Morona, Humphrey D. Mazigo, Susan Kutz, Jennifer Hatfield, Mange Manyama and Frank van der Meer
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:22
  22. Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite named Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii). Pregnant women are considered one of the risk groups. The objective of this retrospective study is to prov...

    Authors: Majda Laboudi, Zoubida Taghy, Oussama Duieb, François Peyron and Abderrahim Sadak
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:21
  23. Leishmaniasis is not endemic in Japan, and imported cases are rare. However, there are increasing concerns regarding imported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis from endemic countries to Japan. This report descr...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Kitano, Chizu Sanjoba, Yasuyuki Goto, Kazumasa Iwamoto, Hiroki Kitagawa, Toshihito Nomura, Keitaro Omori, Norifumi Shigemoto, Michihiro Hide, Yoshitsugu Matsumoto and Hiroki Ohge
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:20
  24. Anemia in pregnancy represents a global public health concern due to wide ranging maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in all peripartum periods. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with anemi...

    Authors: Felix Bongomin, Ronald Olum, Andrew Peter Kyazze, Sandra Ninsiima, Gloria Nattabi, Lourita Nakyagaba, Winnie Nabakka, Rebecca Kukunda, Phillip Ssekamatte, Davis Kibirige, Stephen Cose, Annettee Nakimuli, Joseph Baruch Baluku and Irene Andia-Biraro
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:19
  25. Tuberculosis is the oldest infectious disease and it is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even though several primary studies have been conducted on the incidence of tuberculosis am...

    Authors: Melkalem Mamuye Azanaw, Nebiyu Mekonnen Derseh, Gebeyehu Shumuye Yetemegn and Dessie Abebaw Angaw
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:18
  26. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of communicable diseases that principally impact the world’s poorest people. The use of digital health technologies is an emerging and promising way to im...

    Authors: Binyam Tilahun, Kassahun Dessie Gashu, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Berhanu Fikadie Endehabtu and Dessie Abebaw Angaw
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:17
  27. Over a decade of implementing a global strategy to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Ghana through mass drug administration, the disease is still being transmitted in 11 districts out of an initial 98 endemic ...

    Authors: Alfred Kwesi Manyeh, Tobias Chirwa, Rohit Ramaswamy, Frank Baiden and Latifat Ibisomi
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:16
  28. Hyperferritinemia is increasingly associated with mortality in sepsis. Studies estimating the prevalence of hyperferritinemia in pediatric scrub typhus are limited.

    Authors: Vijai Williams, Nisha Menon, Prateek Bhatia, Manisha Biswal, Sreejesh Sreedharanunni, Muralidharan Jayashree and Karthi Nallasamy
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:15
  29. In sub-Saharan African countries, neonatal mortality rates remain unacceptably high. Ethiopia is one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest death rates of newborn children. Therefore, this stu...

    Authors: Setegn Muche Fenta, Hailegebrael Birhan Biresaw and Kenaw Derebe Fentaw
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:14
  30. Alcohol use disorders (AUD) have the worst impact in low-middle-income countries (LMICs), where the disease burden per liter of alcohol consumed is higher than in wealthy populations. Furthermore, the median t...

    Authors: Raj Jadnanansing, Matthijs Blankers, Rudi Dwarkasing, Kajal Etwaroo, Vincent Lumsden, Jack Dekker and Robbert Bipat
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:12
  31. This study aims to examine miners’ working conditions and self-rated health status in copper mines in Zambia and to identify the conditions and factors necessary to improve the safety and health of mineworkers.

    Authors: Mayumi Ohnishi, Backsion Tembo, Rieko Nakao, Emi Matsuura and Wakako Fujita
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:11
  32. Infectious diseases remain a leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the world, and those caused by bacteria are common in the East African region. In this region, trade and consumption of herbal medic...

    Authors: Abdul Walusansa, Savina Asiimwe, Hussein. M. Kafeero, Iramiot. J. Stanley, Jamilu. E. Ssenku, Jesca. L. Nakavuma and Esezah. K. Kakudidi
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:10
  33. The AIDH is a project as a historical epidemiology. The AIDH aims to collect, maintain, and manage past epidemiological materials and to offer these materials to persons who are interested in the history and i...

    Authors: Wataru Iijima, Hiroki Inoue and Tomoo Ichikawa
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:9
  34. Despite the remarkable decrease in infant mortality rate in most countries, the rate of decline is slow and it remains unacceptably high in Sub-Saharan Africa. The progress in infant mortality in Ethiopia is f...

    Authors: Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema and Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:8
  35. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), such as hookworm, roundworm and whipworm, and food-borne trematodiases, including Clonorchis sinensis, remain a public health problem worldwide, especially in tropical and subtr...

    Authors: Zhi-Hua Jiang, Xiao-Ling Wan, Guo-Li Lv, Wei-Wei Zhang, Yuan Lin, Wen-Qian Tang, Hai-Yan Wei, Fang-Qi Ou, Yun-Liang Shi, Yi-Chao Yang, Jian Liu and Carlos H. F. Chan
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:6
  36. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is one of the main contributors to reproductive health problems that affect women’s quality of life. Previous studies have reported the risk factors and prevalence of POP. The aim o...

    Authors: Rupa Singh, Sandeep Mahat, Sonam Singh, Carolyn K. Nyamasege and Yukiko Wagatsuma
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:5
  37. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a tuberculosis (TB) case notification rate of 333 cases per 100,000 population in 2016 and is one of the 14 countries classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “high-burde...

    Authors: Barne Willie, Avi J. Hakim, Steven G. Badman, Damian Weikum, Rebecca Narokobi, Kelsey Coy, Josephine Gabuzzi, Simon Pekon, Samson Gene, Angelyn Amos, Martha Kupul, Parker Hou, Nick M. Dala, David M. Whiley, Johanna Wapling, John M. Kaldor…
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:4
  38. Globally, using tuberculosis signs and symptoms (TB-SS) as a screening tool has become less important due to its low sensitivity and specificity. We analyzed data from the Myanmar National Tuberculosis (TB) pr...

    Authors: Kyaw Ko Ko Htet, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong and Si Thu Aung
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:3
  39. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to hypoxic environments through the development of unique mechanisms that suppress an increase in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration even in high-altitude areas. Hb concentrations g...

    Authors: Hiroaki Arima, Masayuki Nakano, Sweta Koirala, Hiromu Ito, Basu Dev Pandey, Kishor Pandey, Takayuki Wada and Taro Yamamoto
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:2
  40. Lack of sustainable access to clean drinking water continues to be an issue of paramount global importance, leading to millions of preventable deaths annually. Best practices for providing sustainable access t...

    Authors: Nathan Tintle, Kristin Van De Griend, Rachel Ulrich, Randall D. Wade, Tena M. Baar, Emma Boven, Carolyn E. A. Cooper, Olivia Couch, Lauren Eekhoff, Benjamin Fry, Grace K. Goszkowicz, Maya A. Hecksel, Adam Heynen, Jade A. Laughlin, Sydney M. Les, Taylor R. Lombard…
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2021 49:1
  41. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Zemenu Tadesse Tessema and Tadele Amare Zeleke
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:103

    The original article was published in Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:100

  42. The world is now challenging the pandemic of COVID-19 infection. This is the third and most extensive pandemic. Previous studies showed the plausibility of vitamin D prophylaxis and therapy for COVID-19, parti...

    Authors: Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Angela and Andryawan Wahyu Pradana
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:102
  43. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine is an efficacious intervention for protection of children against Plasmodium falciparum malaria during the rainy season. In r...

    Authors: Sol Richardson, Taiwo Ibinaiye, Jamilu Nikau, Olusola Oresanya, Madeleine Marasciulo, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer, Christian Rassi and Olatunde Adesoro
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:101
  44. Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that is widely consumed in the world. Alcohol use is one of the world’s leading risk factors for disease and disability. It affects individuals’ physical, mental, economic, ...

    Authors: Zemenu Tadesse Tessema and Tadele Amare Zeleke
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:100

    The Correction to this article has been published in Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:103

  45. Despite the implementation of various strategies such as the declaration of COVID-19 emergency state, staying at home, lockdown, and massive protective equipment distribution, still COVID-19 is increasing alar...

    Authors: Habtamu Sewunet Mekonnen, Abere Woretaw Azagew, Chalachew Adugna Wubneh, Getaneh Mulualem Belay, Nega Tezera Assimamaw, Chilot Desta Agegnehu, Telake Azale, Zelalem Nigussie Azene, Mehari Woldemariam Merid, Atalay Goshu Muluneh, Demiss Mulatu Geberu, Getahun Molla Kassa, Melaku Kindie Yenit, Sewbesew Yitayih Tilahun, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Animut Tagele Tamiru…
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:99
  46. Although long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most effective tool for preventing malaria parasite transmission, the nets have some limitations. For example, the increase of LLIN use has induced the r...

    Authors: Noboru Minakawa, James O. Kongere, George O. Sonye, Peter A. Lutiali, Beatrice Awuor, Hitoshi Kawada, Rie Isozumi and Kyoko Futami
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:98
  47. Cryptosporidiosis is an acute and short-term infection which can lead to severe diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) associated with a persistent cough in the host with immune system defect. This systematic...

    Authors: Mousa Motavalli Haghi, Zohreh Khorshidvand, Salman Khazaei, Faezeh Foroughi-Parvar, Hossein Sarmadian, Nastaran Barati, Fariborz Etemadifar and Reza Ghasemikhah
    Citation: Tropical Medicine and Health 2020 48:97

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