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Table 5 Determinants of modern contraceptive choice

From: Socioeconomic determinants of use and choice of modern contraceptive methods in Ghana

Explanatory variables Men (N = 890) Women (N = 1725)
LARC Permanent/other LARC Permanent/other
RRR [95% CI] RRR [95% CI] RRR [95% CI] RRR [95% CI]
Age 1.16 0.92 1.16* 1.03
  [0.93–1.45] [0.69–1.23] [1.031.31] [0.75–1.41]
Age squared 0.98 1.02 0.977* 1.01
  [0.95–1.01] [0.98–1.06] [0.9590.996] [0.97–1.06]
Health insurance status
Uninsured 1 1 1 1
Insured 1.01 1.04 1.20 1.75
  [0.63–1.61] [0.45–2.41] [0.91–1.60] [0.95–3.21]
Marital status
Unmarried 1 1 1 1
In monogamous union 21.59*** 3.75* 1.86*** 0.91
  [8.1757.06] [1.0813.02] [1.362.54] [0.46–1.78]
In polygamous union 62.13*** 0.00*** 2.32** 1.03
  [16.49234.13] [0.000.00] [1.393.88] [0.31–3.38]
HIV testing status
Not tested 1 1 1 1
Tested 1.08 1.15 1.55** 1.45
  [0.60–1.95] [0.50–2.64] [1.152.08] [0.82–2.59]
Engaged in early sex (age < 17 years)
No 1 1 1 1
Yes 0.80 0.76 1.04 1.25
  [0.44–1.47] [0.23–2.57] [0.70–1.55] [0.75–2.10]
Wealth quintile (Richest)
Richest 1 1 1 1
Poorest 1.28 0.60 1.96 0.40
  [0.32–5.18] [0.05–6.77] [0.90–4.25] [0.11–1.46]
Poorer 2.04 0.85 2.19* 0.71
  [0.68–6.13] [0.14–4.98] [1.194.01] [0.29–1.74]
Middle 2.32 1.82 1.92* 0.60
  [0.79–6.80] [0.35–9.61] [1.153.20] [0.28–1.28]
Richer 1.41 1.00 1.29 0.50
  [0.49–4.06] [0.26–3.80] [0.78–2.14] [0.23–1.08]
Educational attainment
Tertiary 1 1 1 1
None 1.47 0.80 2.72* 3.19
  [0.49–4.39] [0.12–5.27] [1.206.14] [0.99–10.29]
Basic 1.04 0.35 2.53* 1.97
  [0.41–2.67] [0.06–1.94] [1.205.34] [0.53–7.23]
Secondary 0.93 0.80 1.56 1.94
  [0.43–2.05] [0.29–2.23] [0.73–3.32] [0.77–4.91]
Religious affiliation
Catholic 1 1 1 1
Charismatic 1.11 2.47 0.71 0.20
  [0.39–3.18] [0.15–39.86] [0.29–1.71] [0.04–1.09]
Other Christian 1.32 10.96* 0.94 0.40
  [0.44–3.90] [1.16103.43] [0.41–2.17] [0.12–1.31]
Islam 1.02 11.94* 0.80 0.25*
  [0.37–2.81] [1.20118.59] [0.33–1.92] [0.070.89]
Traditional 0.60 6.28 0.51 0.24
  [0.19–1.92] [0.48–81.54] [0.20–1.30] [0.05–1.28]
None 0.87 42.74** 0.55 0.50
  [0.21–3.51] [3.20571.40] [0.16–1.86] [0.08–2.90]
Administrative region
Greater Accra 1 1 1 1
Western 0.25* 1.48 0.79 1.25
  [0.080.76] [0.31–7.13] [0.41–1.49] [0.54–2.89]
Central 0.53 0.76 0.97 2.33
  [0.19–1.43] [0.13–4.66] [0.53–1.77] [0.95–5.69]
Volta 0.43 0.35 0.63 0.34
  [0.13–1.39] [0.02–6.34] [0.34–1.16] [0.11–1.05]
Eastern 0.30 1.33 1.09 1.39
  [0.08–1.10] [0.26–6.78] [0.61–1.94] [0.59–3.27]
Ashanti 0.68 3.15 1.02 1.50
  [0.27–1.71] [0.83–11.99] [0.55–1.91] [0.60–3.76]
Brong Ahafo 0.53 0.65 1.11 0.93
  [0.19–1.45] [0.11–4.03] [0.61–2.03] [0.31–2.81]
Northern 0.20 0.26 1.34 0.45
  [0.04–1.09] [0.03–1.94] [0.63–2.86] [0.07–2.77]
Upper East 1.28 0.57 1.84 0.08*
  [0.42–3.88] [0.07–5.04] [0.89–3.80] [0.010.59]
Upper West 0.37 0.00*** 1.60 0.59
  [0.10–1.42] [0.000.00] [0.78–3.27] [0.13–2.60]
Place of residence
Rural 1 1 1 1
Urban 0.77 0.87 0.98 1.15
  [0.39–1.52] [0.22–3.40] [0.66–1.45] [0.63–2.10]
F-statistic for goodness of fit (p value) 159 (0.00) 5.26 (0.00)
Generalized Hausman test for IIA     
F-statistic (p value) 0.42 (0.996) 0.55 (0.972) 0.69 (0.888) 1.34 (0.117)
  1. RRR: relative-risk ratio, results from multinomial logistic regression (reference group = short-acting contraceptive method users), survey design (sampling weights and clustering) applied; test for independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) implemented using suest Stata command to incorporate the survey design (Ho: difference in coefficients not systematic), the overall statistical significance of the respective models (F-statistic for the goodness of fit) depicts the robustness of the models in explaining the determinants of modern contraceptive choice among Ghanaian men and women, bold indicate statistically significant values at 95% confidence interval (CI), *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001