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Table 4 Determinants of modern contraceptive use

From: Socioeconomic determinants of use and choice of modern contraceptive methods in Ghana

Explanatory variables Men (N = 4385) Women (N = 9353)
(1) (2) (1) (2)
OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI]
Age 1.32*** 1.32*** 1.30*** 1.30***
  [1.231.41] [1.231.41] [1.231.39] [1.221.39]
Age squared 0.96*** 0.96*** 0.96*** 0.96***
  [0.960.97] [0.960.97] [0.950.97] [0.950.97]
Health insurance status
Uninsured 1 1 1 1
Insured 1.09 1.07 0.84* 0.77**
  [0.89–1.35] [0.87–1.32] [0.730.97] [0.640.92]
Marital status
Unmarried 1 1 1 1
In monogamous union 0.50*** 0.65** 1.44*** 1.52***
  [0.380.66] [0.470.90] [1.201.73] [1.201.92]
In polygamous union 0.48** 0.56 1.24 1.38*
  [0.290.79] [0.30–1.07] [0.97–1.58] [1.031.85]
HIV testing status
Not tested 1 1 1 1
Tested 1.19 1.20 1.42*** 1.37**
  [0.92–1.54] [0.93–1.56] [1.201.67] [1.091.72]
Engaged in early sex (age < 17 years)
No 1 1 1 1
Yes 1.47** 1.80*** 1.64*** 1.58***
  [1.131.91] [1.302.51] [1.401.91] [1.311.89]
Wealth quintile (Richest)
Richest 1 1 1 1
Poorest 0.81 0.79 1.38 1.38
  [0.46–1.43] [0.45–1.39] [0.96–1.97] [0.96–1.98]
Poorer 0.97 0.92 1.20 1.20
  [0.60–1.57] [0.57–1.47] [0.83–1.73] [0.83–1.74]
Middle 1.17 1.03 1.23 1.24
  [0.76–1.80] [0.67–1.59] [0.94–1.60] [0.95–1.62]
Richer 0.96 0.87 1.01 1.01
  [0.66–1.38] [0.59–1.26] [0.81–1.26] [0.81–1.27]
Educational attainment
Tertiary 1 1 1 1
None 0.46** 0.26*** 0.75 0.75
  [0.280.77] [0.130.50] [0.49–1.14] [0.49–1.14]
Basic 0.74 0.42** 0.94 0.95
  [0.48–1.14] [0.240.74] [0.63–1.40] [0.64–1.41]
Secondary 0.73 0.52** 0.91 0.92
  [0.53–1.02] [0.320.85] [0.62–1.33] [0.63–1.34]
Religious affiliation
Catholic 1 1 1 1
Charismatic 1.25 1.23 0.94 0.95
  [0.78–2.03] [0.76–2.00] [0.62–1.43] [0.63–1.45]
Other Christian 0.96 0.95 0.90 0.91
  [0.64–1.46] [0.62–1.45] [0.61–1.33] [0.61–1.34]
Islam 1.06 1.05 0.93 0.94
  [0.69–1.65] [0.67–1.64] [0.64–1.35] [0.65–1.35]
Traditional 0.92 0.87 0.77 0.79
  [0.58–1.48] [0.53–1.42] [0.53–1.13] [0.54–1.15]
None 0.89 0.86 0.54* 0.53*
  [0.50–1.56] [0.49–1.51] [0.291.00] [0.290.99]
Administrative region
Greater Accra 1 1 1 1
Western 0.72 0.70 1.23 1.22
  [0.47–1.10] [0.46–1.07] [0.88–1.72] [0.87–1.70]
Central 1.78** 1.70* 1.39 1.38
  [1.172.71] [1.142.55] [1.00–1.94] [0.99–1.93]
Volta 0.51** 0.50** 1.47* 1.47*
  [0.320.84] [0.310.82] [1.022.13] [1.012.12]
Eastern 0.71 0.71 1.03 1.02
  [0.48–1.07] [0.48–1.07] [0.74–1.43] [0.74–1.42]
Ashanti 0.63* 0.62* 0.93 0.93
  [0.420.93] [0.420.92] [0.68–1.29] [0.67–1.28]
Brong Ahafo 0.88 0.87 1.47* 1.45*
  [0.56–1.38] [0.56–1.37] [1.062.03] [1.042.01]
Northern 0.60 0.61 0.51** 0.51**
  [0.33–1.08] [0.34–1.10] [0.340.77] [0.340.77]
Upper East 1.32 1.40 1.08 1.07
  [0.75–2.31] [0.81–2.42] [0.75–1.56] [0.74–1.55]
Upper West 0.86 0.91 1.22 1.22
  [0.51–1.43] [0.55–1.52] [0.82–1.82] [0.82–1.81]
Place of residence
Rural 1 1 1 1
Urban 0.77 0.60 0.83 0.72
  [0.56–1.05] [0.34–1.06] [0.66–1.03] [0.51–1.02]
Insured#urban     1.22
     [0.93–1.61]
Early sex#urban   0.69   1.10
   [0.41–1.16]   [0.81–1.48]
Tested#urban     1.09
     [0.77–1.53]
Marital status#urban
In monogamous union#urban   0.62*   0.91
   [0.390.98]   [0.66–1.23]
In polygamous union#urban   0.67   0.75
   [0.25–1.85]   [0.46–1.20]
Education#urban
None#urban   3.67**   
   [1.489.12]   
Basic#urban   2.89**   
   [1.316.39]   
Secondary#urban   1.65   
   [0.89–3.05]   
  1. OR: odds ratio, results from logistic regression, survey design (sampling weights and clustering) applied, bold indicate statistically significant values at 95% confidence interval (CI), *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001