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Table 3 Subgroup analysis regarding proportion of food hygiene practices among Ethiopia's food handlers (2012–2021)

From: Food hygiene practices and determinants among food handlers in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Subgroup No of included study Sample size Proportion Good food hygiene practice (95% CI) Heterogeneity across the studies Heterogeneity between group (p value)
I2 (%) p value
Region Amhara 12 4343 55.2 (43.4, 57.2) 98.7  < 0.001  < 0.001
Addis Ababa 2 696 37.4 (17.6, 61.8) 96.7  < 0.001
Oromia 6 996 47.9 (27.2, 70.5) 98.9  < 0.001
Tigray 2 435 52.9 (48.2, 57.6) 0 0.811
SNNPR 1 383 32.6(27.9, 37.3) 0  
Study area City 2 778 38.2 (17.0, 59.3) 97.5  < 0.001 0.611
Town 17 5415 49.9 (39.8, 60.1) 98.6  < 0.001
University 3 894 61.6 (31.2, 67.4) 99.2  < 0.001
Prison 1 66 51.5 (39.4, 63.6) 0  
Sample size  < 311 10 1879 51.8 (36.9, 66.8) 98.1  < 0.001 0.809
≥311 13 4852 49.5 (37.8, 62.2) 98.90  < 0.001
Sampling method Census 5 3059 54.0 (31.1, 77.0) 98.9  < 0.001  < 0.001
Simple random sampling 15 5309 48.4 (37.5, 59.3) 98.7  < 0.001
Systematic sampling 3 752 55.3 (28.0, 72.7) 98.4  < 0.001
Data collection method Interview 10 2682 50.0 (36.6, 63.4) 98.3  < 0.001 0.806
Interview and observation 10 3624 52.5 (37.4, 67.7) 99.0  < 0.001
Observation 3 847 45.5 (30.7, 60.4) 94.7  < 0.001
Cutoff point used to categorize food hygiene practice  ≥mean 6 2398 47.3 (41.0, 53.6 90.0  < 0.001  < 0.001
≥ 50% 14 3942 53.4 (39.9, 66.8) 99.0  < 0.001
Not reported 3 813 43.5 (21.7, 65.3) 97.7  < 0.001
  1. SNNPR Southern Nations, Nationalities, and peoples’ Region