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Table 2 Subgroup analysis of FUS prevalence according to year, country, type of sample, type of symptoms and diagnostic methods

From: Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of recently published literature (2016–2020)

Subgroup variable Prevalence % (95% CI) I2 (%) Heterogeneity (Q) P-value Interaction test (X2) P-value
Year
 2016 14.6 (11.3–18.6) 96.3% 1034.7 < 0.01 375.3 < 0.01
 2017 17.5 (12–24.9) 97.8% 1055.2 < 0.01   
 2018 19.0 (13.1–26.7) 98.8% 2179.6 < 0.01   
 2019 21.7 (16.8–27.5) 93.4% 274.7 < 0.01   
 2020 28.6 (13.1–51.6) 97.1% 138.2 < 0.01   
Country
 Ghana 9.1 (6.8–12.2) 73.46% 11.31  < 0.01   
 Malawi 11.4 (0.8–15.4) 70.62% 6.81  < 0.01   
 Nigeria 21.1 (17.6–25.0) 96.9% 2337.91  < 0.01   
 South Africa 27.4 (25.6–29.2) 92.53% 80.36 < 0.01   
 Sudan 55.8 (43.9–67.1) 97.59% 374.17 < 0.01 430.6  < 0.01
 Egypt 1.7 (0.1–32.8) 83.57 5.90 < 0.01   
Type of sample
 Urine 17.2 (14.5–20.3) 98.11% 5949.4 < 0.01 1285.2  > 0.05
 Vaginal lavage 25.0 (11.4–46.1) 98.2% 110.40 < 0.01   
Type of symptoms
 Hematuria 19.4 (12.2–29.4) 92.33% 52.19  < 0.01 82.4  < 0.01
 Proteinuria 13.6 (6.69–24.8) 0.00 = 1.00   
Diagnostic method
 Direct microscopy 17.1 (14.5–20.1) 98.1% 6013 < 0.01 350.6 < 0.01
 Filtration and microscopy 18.2 (5.9–43.9) 99.1% 563.1 < 0.01   
 PCR 15.3 (6.1–33.2) 95.9% 24.64 < 0.01   
 Sedimentation and microscopy 11.4 (3.6–30.9) 96.6% 59.5 < 0.01