Skip to main content

Table 1 TB diagnosis in different animal species in Nepal

From: Insights into transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Nepal

Year Location (Nepal) Sample type Sample size Animal species Necropsy Phenotypic Genotyping tools Mycobacterium Spp. References
2007–2010 Chitwan National Park,
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Lung tissues 3 Asian Elephant Granulomatous nodules in the lungs and bronchial lymph nodes with caseous foci Culture in L-J,
Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing
Multiplex PCR,
Spoligotyping,
MLVA,
SNP analysis,
Drug resistance gene sequencing
M. tuberculosis Paudel et al. [7]
2014 Captive Wild animal facility Lung and extra pulmonary granulomatous lesions 2 Deer and
Blue bull
No details Microscopy
Culture
DNA extraction
Spoligotyping
MIRU-VNTR
MLST
M. orygis Thapa et al. [8]
2015 Chitwan National Park Lung tissues 1 Greater-one-horned rhinoceros Several granulomatous lesion observed in lungs with encapsulated and contained caseous necrotic material Culture in L-J,
Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing
Spoligotyping,
MIRU-VNTR,
Multiplex PCR,
Region of difference
MLST
M. orygis Thapa et al. [9]
2013 Chitwan National Park Lung Tissues 2 Asian elephant Tuberculous lesions in lungs Culture in L-J,
Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing
Spoligotyping,
LSP,
Drug resistance gene sequencing
M. tuberculosis mixed infection Indo-Oceanic, East African– Indian (CAS-Delhi) lineages; Indo-Oceanic and East Asian (Beijing) lineages Paudel et al. [10]
  1. MLVA, Multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis; LSP, Large Sequence Polymorphisms