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Table 3 Perceived effectiveness, acceptance, and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake decision-making by socio-demographic characteristics (n = 5260)

From: Hesitancy in COVID-19 vaccine uptake and its associated factors among the general adult population: a cross-sectional study in six Southeast Asian countries

Socio-demographic characteristics Agreed that vaccines are effective to prevent and control COVID-19 Would accept COVID-19 vaccines when available Believed that convenience is important for people to decide whether to accept vaccines Believed that health providers’ advice is important for people to decide whether to accept vaccines Believed that cost of the vaccines is important for people to decide whether to accept vaccines Hesitant to receive COVID-19 vaccines
Sex
 Female 2088 (78.5) 2178 (81.9) 1991 (74.8) 2175 (81.8) 1615 (60.7) 1342 (50.4)
 Male 2183 (84.0)a 2240 (86.2)a 1985 (76.3) 2192 (84.3)a 1690 (65.0)a 1250 (48.1)
p value  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.21 0.01 0.001 0.09
Residential area
 Rural 1187 (74.2) 1217 (76.1) 1016 (63.5) 1139 (71.2) 766 (47.9) 901 (56.3)a
 Urban 3084 (84.2)a 3201 (87.4)a 2960 (80.9)a 3228 (88.2)a 2539 (69.4)a 1691 (46.2)
p value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Education level
  ≤ Primary 36 (94.7) 35 (92.1) 17 (44.7) 20 (52.6) 5 (13.2) 34 (89.5)a
 Secondary 1151 (77.6) 1142 (77.0) 1050 (70.8) 1090 (73.5) 840 (56.6) 799 (53.9)a
 Post-secondary 540 (66.3) 531 (65.2) 520 (63.9) 534 (65.6) 422 (51.8) 422 (51.8)a
 Tertiary 2544 (87.0)a 2710 (92.7)a 2389 (81.7)a 2722 (93.1)a 2038 (69.7)a 1337 (45.7)
p value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Employment status
 Employed 2429 (74.9) 2596 (80.0) 2222 (68.5) 2515 (77.6) 1800 (55.5) 1603 (49.4)
 Student 1679 (91.9)a 1653 (90.5)a 1598 (87.5)a 1692 (92.7)a 1386 (75.9)a 871 (47.7)
 Unemployed 163 (85.3) 169 (88.5) 156 (81.7) 160 (83.8) 119 (62.3) 118 (61.8)a
p value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Marital status
 Widowed/divorced/separated 111 (69.8) 120 (75.5) 95 (59.7) 115 (72.3) 96 (60.4) 88 (55.4)
 Married 1692 (77.3) 1813 (82.8) 1540 (70.4) 1753 (80.1) 1225 (56.0) 1069 (48.8)
 Single 2468 (84.8)a 2485 (85.3)a 2341 (80.4)a 2499 (85.8)a 1984 (68.1)a 1435 (49.3)
p value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.29
Family economic status
 High 751 (86.7)a 807 (93.2)a 600 (69.3) 733 (84.6)a 423 (48.8) 459 (53.1)a
 Low 1507 (77.5) 1535 (79.0) 1474 (75.8) 1574 (81.0) 1283 (66.0)a 1013 (52.1)a
 Medium 2013 (82.2) 2076 (84.7) 1902 (77.6)a 2060 (84.1) 1599 (65.3) 1120 (45.7)
p value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.009  < 0.001  < 0.001
Country of residence
 Indonesia 306 (7.2) 264 (6.0) 339 (8.5) 315 (7.2) 181 (5.5) 264 (10.2)
 Malaysia 1221 (28.6) 1223 (27.7) 1218 (30.6) 1241 (28.4) 1162 (35.2) 487 (18.8)
 Myanmar 255 (6.0) 271 (6.1) 260 (6.5) 259 (5.9) 211 (6.4) 187 (7.2)
 Philippines 277 (6.5) 254 (5.7) 289 (7.3) 292 (6.7) 254 (7.7) 106 (4.1)
 Thailand 1624 (38.0) 1806 (40.9) 1550 (39.0) 1797 (41.1) 1385 (41.9) 976 (37.7)
 Vietnam 588 (13.8) 600 (13.6) 320 (8.0) 463 (10.6) 112 (3.4) 572 (22.1)
p value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
  1. aBonferroni adjusted post-hoc comparisons (exact p values are mentioned in the text)