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Table 3 Vital signs and laboratory investigations among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and their association with the final outcome

From: Clinical manifestations, complications, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in Sudan: a multicenter observational study

Variables n Number (%) or median (IQR) Univariate logistic regression for predictors of in-hospital death
OR Lower CI Upper CI P-value
Vital signs
Heart rate, beat/min 189 90 (81–103) 1.052 1.030 1.076 <  0.001
Systolic BPa, mmHg 196 131 (118.3–145) 0.985 0.969 1.001 0.067
 Normal   59 (30.1)     
 Hypertension   129 (65.8)     
 Hypertensive crisis   8 (4.1)     
Diastolic BPa, mmHg 196 80 (70.25–90) 1.001 0.999 1.002 0.47
 Normal   85 (43.4)     
 Hypertension   106 (54.1)     
 Hypertensive crisis   5 (2.6)     
Respiratory rate, breath/min 116 24 (20–36) 1.061 1.022 1.103 0.002
Temperature, centigrade 93 37 (36.5–37.8) 0.956 0.776 1.178 0.674
SpO2a, percentage 182 95 (89–98) 0.903 0.866 0.942 <  0.001
Laboratory Investigation       
Red blood cells counts, million/mm3 128 4.3 (3.6–4.9) 0.566 0.345 0.928 0.024
Hemoglobin, g/dL 161 11.9 (10.1–13.6) 0.765 0.651 0.899 0.001
Hematocrit, percentage 129 36 (31–41) 0.894 0.836 0.956 0.001
WBCs countsa, × 103/μL 164 7.3 (5,2–12.1) 1.144 1.074 1.218 < 0.001
 Leukopenia 164 15 (9.1)     
 Normal   102 (62.2)     
 Leukocytosis   47 (28.7)     
Monocyte, × 103/μL 103 0.5 (0.4–0.8) 1.624 0.854 3.087 0.139
Lymphocyte, × 103/μL 145 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 1.014 0.776 1.326 0.919
 Lymphopenia 145 85 (58.6)     
 Normal   59 (40.7)     
 Lymphocytosis   1 (0.7)     
Neutrophils, × 103/μL 168 5.25 (3.19–9.8) 1.125 1.049 1.205 0.001
 Neutropenia 168 11 (8.0)     
 Normal   79 (57.2)     
 Neutrophilia   48 (34.8)     
Platelets, × 109/L 87 247.5 (187.5–342.3) 0.997 0.994 1.001 0.101
CRP, mg/dla 112 62 (18.1–143.8) 1.006 1.002 1.010 0.003
 Normal CRP level   14 (12.5)     
 High CRP level   98 (87.5)     
ESR, mm/hour 64 40 (15–68) 1.018 0.998 1.039 0.078
Ferritin, ng/ml 22 651.9 (470.4–1472.8) 1 0.999 1.001 0.658
 Normal Ferritin level   1 (4.5)     
 High Ferritin level   21 (95.5)     
Lactate dehydrogenase, unit/liter 19 409.0 (359–760) 1 0.998 1.001 0.688
Random blood sugar, mg/dL 112 141 (102.5–261.8) 1.004 1.001 1.008 0.024
Sodium, mmol/L 144 135 (130–139) 1.04 0.994 1.088 0.086
Potassium, mmol/L 146 3.8 (3.5–4.3) 1.742 1.093 2.777 0.020
Blood Urea nitrogen, mg/dL 149 30 (17–50.5) 1.010 1.004 1.018 0.003
Creatinine, mg/dL 151 1 (0.7–2.2) 1.003 0.992 1.014 0.585
Alanine aminotransferase, unit /liter 78 26 (19–43.7) 1.014 1.002 1.025 0.022
Aspartate aminotransferase, unit /liter 73 28 (17–56.7) 1.018 1.002 1.035 0.024
Alkaline phosphatase, unit /liter 70 96 (63.5–119) 1.001 0.998 1.003 0.55
Total bilirubin, mg/dl 55 0.6 (0.3–0.9) 3.426 1.087 10.803 0.036
Albumin, g/dl 88 3.5 (2.9–4.2) 1.016 0.985 1.048 0.312
 Low Albumin level   44 (50.0)     
 Normal Albumin level   41 (46.6)     
 High Albumin level   3 (3.4)     
D-dimer 26 3.3 (1.2–16. 6) 0.939 0.804 1.097 0.429
  1. Bold values mean these varibles were statistically significant
  2. aBP, blood pressure; SpO2, saturation of peripheral oxygen; WBCs, white blood cells; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, estimation sedimentation rate