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Table 2 Clinical manifestations: symptoms, hospital disposition, complications and severity of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and their association with the final outcome

From: Clinical manifestations, complications, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in Sudan: a multicenter observational study

Variables n Number (%) or median (IQR) Univariate logistic regression for predictors of in-hospital death
  OR Lower CI Upper CI P-value
Duration from the onset of symptom to hospital admission, days 169 5 (3–10) 1.002 0.939 1.07 0.943
 7 days and less   114 (67.5)     
 8–14 days   44 (26.0)     
 15–30 days   11 (6.5)     
 More than 30 days   0 (0.0)     
Site of disposition at admission 193      
 Ward deposition (reference)   140 (72.5)
 HDU depositiona   50 (25.9) 5.231 2.538 10.781 < 0.001
 ICU depositiona   3 (1.6) 2.833 0.246 32.666 0.404
Manifestations
Pulmonary manifestations 198      
 Cough   140 (70.7) 0.627 0.308 1.279 0.2
 Shortness of breath   137 (69.2) 3.392 1.347 8.538 0.010
 Hemoptysis   5 (2.5) 0.899 0.098 8.258 0.925
 Chest pain   12 (6.1) 0.999
 Sore throat   32 (16.2) 0.326 0.094 1.127 0.077
 Congestion/runny nose   9 (4.5) 0.999
General manifestations 173      
 Fever   144 (83.2) 1.263 0.445 3.588 0.661
 Fatigue   58 (33.5) 0.887 0.4 1.967 0.796
 Headache   40 (23.1) 0.159 0.036 0.697 0.015
 Body aches   17 (9.8) 1.241 0.378 4.069 0.722
 Loss of smell   4 (2.3) 0.999
 Loss of taste   1 (0.6) 1
Neurological manifestations 23      
 Disturbed level of consciousness   21 (91.3) 0.999
 Hemiparesis   4 (17.4) 1.111 0.129 9.605 0.924
 Aphasia   3 (13.0) 2.444 0.19 31.526 0.493
 Hemi sensory deficit   0 (0.0)
 Visual loss   0 (0.0)
Gastrointestinal manifestations 42      
 Nausea/vomiting   15 (35.7) 2.933 0.711 12.108 0.137
 Diarrhea   18 (42.9) 1.154 0.289 4.608 0.839
 Abdominal pain   13 (30.9) 0.788 0.171 3.621 0.759
 Loss of appetite   8 (19.0) 0.343 0.037 3.161 0.345
Vascular manifestation 3      
 DVTa   2 (66.7) 1
  Coronary artery disease   1 (33.3) 1
  Bowel ischemia   0 (0.0)
  Limb ischemia   0 (0.0)
In-hospital complications (yes) 243  70 (28.8)     
 Sepsis   24 (9.8) 15.074 5.751 39.511 < 0.001
 Acidosis   19 (7.8) 32.711 8.986 119.081 < 0.001
 Respiratory failure   17 (6.9) 44.758 9.753 205.392 < 0.001
 Acute kidney injury   15 (6.2) 21.647 5.800 80.791 < 0.001
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome   12 (4.9) 6.533 1.971 21.661 0.002
 Hyponatremia   10 (4.1) 0.44 0.054 3.559 0.441
 Alkalosis   8 (3.3) 7.480 1.718 32.558 0.007
 Hypokalemia   8 (3.3) 1.371 0.268 7.026 0.705
 Shock   6 (2.5) 0.999
 Hyperkalemia   5 (2.1) 0.999
 Acute cardiac injury   4 (1.6) 4.205 0.576 30.677 0.157
 Heart failure   2 (0.8 0   0.999
 GIT bleedinga   2 (0.8)   0   0.999
 Hypernatremia   1 (0.4) 1
 Acute liver injury   0 (0.0)
 Disseminated intravascular coagulation   0 (0.0)
Severity of the disease 116      
 Mild (reference)   45 (38.8)
 Moderate   29 (25.0) 3.259 0.282 37.687 0.344
 Severe   27 (23.3) 40.857 4.899 340.728 0.001
 Critically ill   15 (12.9) 286.000 23.977 3411.477 < 0.001
  1. Bold values mean these varibles were statistically significant
  2. aHDU, high dependency unit; ICU, intensive care unit; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; GIT, gastrointestinal tract