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Table 3 Probit regression estimates of determinants of willingness to accept or uptake COVID-19 vaccine

From: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among the adult population in Ghana: evidence from a pre-vaccination rollout survey

   Dependent variable: accept COVID-19 vaccine
  Self+ Someone++
Independent variables AME(SE) AME(SE)
Sex (Ref: male)
 Female − 0.05 (0.03) − 0.06** (0.03)
Age (Ref: 18–23)
 24–29 − 0.17*** (0.05) − 0.09* (0.05)
 30–35 − 0.13** (0.05) − 0.04 (0.05)
 36–41 − 0.18*** (0.06) − 0.07 (0.06)
 42–47 − 0.15** (0.08) 0.00 (0.07)
 48 +  − 0.21*** (0.08) − 0.12 (0.08)
Education (Ref: none)
 Primary − 0.16** (0.08) − 0.11 (0.07)
 Middle/JHS/JSS − 0.18** (0.09) − 0.18** (0.08)
 Secondary/SHS/SSSS − 0.13** (0.06) − 0.14** (0.06)
 Tertiary − 0.07 (0.04) − 0.07 (0.04)
Region (Ref: Ashanti)
 Brong Ahafo 0.16 (0.11) 0.23** (0.11)
 Bono East 0.15 (0.12) 0.16 (0.11)
 Central 0.20*** (0.07) 0.27*** (0.07)
 Eastern 0.21*** (0.07) 0.26*** (0.07)
 Greater Accra 0.10 (0.06) 0.16** (0.06)
 Northern 0.26*** (0.09) 0.24** (0.10)
 Oti 0.20 (0.25) 0.20 (0.25)
 Upper East 0.16 (0.14) 0.19 (0.14)
 Upper West 0.31*** (0.09) 0.31*** (0.09)
 Volta 0.11* (0.06) 0.20*** (0.06)
 Western 0.23*** (0.08) 0.23*** (0.08)
 Western North 0.24* (0.13) 0.24** (0.12)
Marital status (Ref: divorced)
 Living together 0.02 (0.13) 0.16 (0.13)
 Married 0.03 (0.11) 0.12 (0.11)
 Never married 0.03 (0.11) 0.16 (0.12)
 Separated 0.17 (0.15) 0.30** (0.14)
 Widowed − 0.15 (0.16) − 0.01 (0.17)
Religion (Ref: Christian)
 Moslem − 0.12* (0.06) − 0.06 (0.06)
 Traditionalist/other 0.08 (0.12) 0.19* (0.10)
Willingness to pay (Ref: no)
 Yes 0.34*** (0.03) 0.35*** (0.03)
COVID-19 is caused by a virus (Ref: no)
 Yes 0.13 (0.08) 0.07 (0.08)
Observations 905 906
  1. Source: Field Data (2020); COVID-19 Coronavirus Disease 2019, JHS Junior High School, SHS Senior High School, JSS Junior Secondary School, SSS Senior Secondary School, Average Marginal Effects; Standard errors in parentheses; *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01; +Self (the respondents himself or herself); ++(someone else including friends, relatives and co-workers etc.)