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Table 3 Univariate associations of household level human tungiasis (presence/absence of tungiasis case) with household, animal and environmental variables

From: Presence of dogs and proximity to a wildlife reserve increase household level risk of tungiasis in Kwale, Kenya

  [ALL] No Yes OR p.ratio
  N = 319 N = 278 N = 41   
Number of people in home 5.00 [3.00; 7.00] 5.00 [3.00; 7.00] 5.00 [2.00; 7.00] 0.90 [0.80; 1.02] 0.091
Median age of people in household 20.1 (14.2) 19.9 (13.4) 21.4 (19.1) 1.01 [0.98; 1.03] 0.558
Fraction male 41.4 (25.2) 42.0 (25.0) 37.2 (26.9) 0.99 [0.98; 1.01] 0.274
SES categories:      
Most poor 48 (20.3%) 43 (20.9%) 5 (16.7%) Ref. Ref.
4 45 (19.1%) 35 (17.0%) 10 (33.3%) 2.40 [0.76; 8.55] 0.136
3 43 (18.2%) 38 (18.4%) 5 (16.7%) 1.13 [0.28; 4.51] 0.859
2 60 (25.4%) 53 (25.7%) 7 (23.3%) 1.13 [0.33; 4.16] 0.851
Least poor 40 (16.9%) 37 (18.0%) 3 (10.0%) 0.71 [0.13; 3.23] 0.664
Domesticated animals
Cows 0.31 (0.46) 0.31 (0.46) 0.34 (0.48) 1.18 [0.59; 2.36] 0.645
Goats 0.61 (0.49) 0.62 (0.49) 0.59 (0.50) 0.87 [0.45; 1.69] 0.682
Birds 0.84 (0.37) 0.83 (0.38) 0.88 (0.33) 1.46 [0.55; 3.93] 0.448
Cats 0.42 (0.49) 0.42 (0.49) 0.41 (0.50) 0.97 [0.50; 1.90] 0.940
Dogs 0.30 (0.46) 0.28 (0.45) 0.46 (0.51) 2.24 [1.12; 4.45] 0.022
Wildlife species
Elephants 0.15 (0.35) 0.14 (0.35) 0.18 (0.39) 1.34 [0.55; 3.27] 0.523
Warthogs 0.35 (0.48) 0.36 (0.48) 0.26 (0.44) 0.61 [0.28; 1.31] 0.203
Rabbits 0.02 (0.13) 0.02 (0.14) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 [0.00;.] 0.989
Baboons 0.33 (0.47) 0.33 (0.47) 0.31 (0.47) 0.91 [0.44; 1.88] 0.789
Monkeys 0.01 (0.12) 0.01 (0.11) 0.03 (0.16) 2.16 [0.22; 21.3] 0.510
Hyena 0.07 (0.25) 0.06 (0.25) 0.08 (0.27) 1.21 [0.34; 4.37] 0.767
Wild cats 0.61 (0.49) 0.61 (0.49) 0.62 (0.49) 1.02 [0.51; 2.04] 0.953
Mongoose 0.01 (0.12) 0.01 (0.11) 0.03 (0.16) 2.16 [0.22; 21.3] 0.510
Buffalo 0.01 (0.10) 0.01 (0.11) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 [0.00;.] 0.987
Zebra 0.00 (0.06) 0.00 (0.06) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 [0.00;.] 0.989
Household and environmental factors
Distance to health facility 3.37 (1.72) 3.37 (1.71) 3.43 (1.82) 1.02 [0.85; 1.24] 0.816
Distance the nearest river or stream 3.06 (2.00) 2.99 (1.95) 3.50 (2.24) 1.13 [0.96; 1.31] 0.132
Distance to wildlife reserve 6.48 (3.74) 6.63 (3.75) 5.43 (3.60) 0.91 [0.82; 1.00] 0.057
Elevation 227 (81.9) 223 (77.7) 253 (103) 1.00 [1.00; 1.01] 0.032
Wall materials:      
Brick/block 16 (6.78%) 13 (6.31%) 3 (10.0%) Ref. Ref.
Mud/cement 13 (5.51%) 11 (5.34%) 2 (6.67%) 0.81 [0.08; 6.27] 0.840
Stone 6 (2.54%) 5 (2.43%) 1 (3.33%) 0.93 [0.03; 10.4] 0.957
Wood/mud 201 (85.2%) 177 (85.9%) 24 (80.0%) 0.57 [0.17; 2.75] 0.439
Water_source:      
Open well 26 (11.0%) 21 (10.2%) 5 (16.7%) Ref. Ref.
Piped 117 (49.6%) 106 (51.5%) 11 (36.7%) 0.43 [0.14; 1.53] 0.182
Pond/dam 45 (19.1%) 39 (18.9%) 6 (20.0%) 0.65 [0.17; 2.57] 0.525
Stream/river 48 (20.3%) 40 (19.4%) 8 (26.7%) 0.83 [0.24; 3.15] 0.780