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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate binomial analyses of factors associated with high COVID-19 incidence area

From: Polarized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: associations with population age structure and behaviours

Respondents’ behaviours and perceptions Un-weighted, n = 6000 Weighted, n = 6000
Numbers (%) in low-COVID-19-incidence area Numbers (%) in high-COVID-19-incidence area Numbers (%) in low-COVID-19-incidence area Numbers (%) in high-COVID-19-incidence area Univariate binominal analysis for high-COVID-19 incidence area OR (95% CI) Multivariate binominal analysis for high-COVID-19 incidence area AOR (95% CI)
Commuting by private automobile No 1447 (48%) 2294 (77%) 1696 (56%) 2337 (78%) ref ref
Yes 1553 (52%) 706 (24%) 1304 (44%) 663 (22%) 0.369 (0.330–0.413)*** 0.444 (0.39–0.501)***
Commuting by public transportation No 2809 (94%) 2008 (67%) 2874 (96%) 2172 (72%) ref ref
Yes 191 (6%) 992 (33%) 126 (4%) 828 (28%) 8.695 (7.151–10.573)*** 6.813 (5.567–8.336)***
Washing hands No 421 (14%) 307 (10%) 350 (12%) 264 (9%) ref ref
Yes 2579 (86%) 2693 (90%) 2650 (88%) 2736 (91%) 1.369(1.157–1.620)*** 1.233 (1.005–1.511)*
Practicing cough etiquette No 988 (33%) 922 (31%) 1039 (35%) 912 (30%) ref ref
Yes 2012 (67%) 2078 (69%) 1961 (65%) 2088 (70%) 1.213 (1.089–1.352)** 1.014 (0.890–1.155)
Opening windows regularly No 1541 (51%) 1409 (47%) 1590 (53%) 1359 (45%) ref ref
Yes 1459 (49%) 1519 (53%) 1410 (47%) 1641 (55%) 1.362 (1.230–1.507)*** 1.248 (1.104–1.412)***
Avoiding all 3 Csa No 1888 (63%) 1636 (55%) 1685 (56%) 1533 (51%) ref b
Yes 1112 (37%) 1364 (45%) 1315 (44%) 1467 (49%) 1.226 (1.108–1.357)***  
Avoiding closed spaces with poor ventilation No 1189 (40%) 988 (33%) 1001 (33%) 899 (30%) ref ref
Yes 1811 (60%) 2012 (67%) 1999 (67%) 2101 (70%) 1.170 (1.050–1.305)** 1.059 (0.912–1.229)
Avoiding crowded places No 742 (25%) 702 (23%) 641 (21%) 620 (21%) ref ref
Yes 2258 (75%) 2298 (77%) 2359 (79%) 2380 (79%) 1.043 (0.921–1.181) 0.757 (0.641–0.893)**
Avoiding close-contact setting No 1604 (54%) 1355 (45%) 1401 (47%) 1264 (42%) ref ref
Yes 1396 (47%) 1645 (55%) 1599 (53%) 1736 (58%) 1.203 (1.087–1.333)*** 1.106 (0.972–1.259)
Non-scheduled visit to drinking places No 2098 (70%) 1927 (64%) 2344 (78%) 2135 (71%) ref ref
Yes 902 (30%) 1073 (36%) 656 (22%) 865 (29%) 1.448 (1.288–1.628)*** 1.212 (1.054–1.392)*
Going eat No 1086 (36%) 1028 (34%) 1209 40%) 1138 (38%) ref ref
Yes 1914 (64%) 1972 (66%) 1791 (60%) 1862 (62%) 1.105 (0.996–1.225) 0.899 (0.798–1.014)
Perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 No 760 (25%) 618 (21%) 805 (27%) 626 (21%) ref ref
Yes 2240 (75%) 2382 (79%) 2195 (73%) 2374 (79%) 1.391 (1.234–1.567)*** 1.380 (1.180 – 1.612)***
Being afraid of transmitting COVID-19 to others No 964 (32%) 847 (28%) 1000 (33%) 882 (29%) ref ref
Yes 2036 (68%) 2153 (72%) 2000 (67%) 2118 (71%) 1.201 (1.076–1.339)** 0.933 (0.807–1.080)
Wearing facemask No 215 (7%) 171 (6%) 186 (6%) 166 (6%) ref ref
Yes 2785 (93%) 2829 (94%) 2814 (94%) 2834 (94%) 1.128 (0.910–1.400) 1.008 (0.789–1.288)
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. Based on the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population as of 2 May 2020, the 20 studied prefectures were divided into low (bottom 10) and high (top 10) areas
  3. AOR adjusted odds ratio, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval; ref: reference category
  4. aAvoiding all 3 Cs means that avoiding ‘closed spaces with poor ventilation’, ‘crowded places’ and ‘close contact setting’, such as close-range conversations
  5. b‘Avoiding all 3 Cs’, includes the broken down three behaviours. Therefore, this variable was excluded from the multivariate binominal analysis