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Table 3 Associations between behaviours/perceptions and age groups

From: Polarized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: associations with population age structure and behaviours

Respondents’ behaviours and perceptions Weighted n = 6000
Numbers (%) of respondents aged 18–59 years
n = 3514
Numbers (%) of respondents aged ≥ 60 years
n = 2487
Commuting by private automobile No 2011 (57%) 2023 (81%)
Yes 1503 (43%) 464 (19%)
OR (95% CI)a ref 0.307 (0.272–0.346)***
Commuting by public transportation No 2729 (78%) 2316 (93%)
Yes 784 (22%) 171 (7%)
OR (95% CI) ref 0.257 (0.216–0.306)***
Washing hands No 440 (13%) 173 (7%)
Yes 3074 (88%) 2313 (93%)
OR (95% CI) ref 1.914 (1.592–2.300)***
Practicing cough etiquette No 1029 (29%) 922 (37%)
Yes 2484 (71%) 1565 (63%)
OR (95% CI) ref 0.703 (0.630–0.784)***
Opening windows regularly No 1614 (46%) 1335 (54%)
Yes 1900 (54%) 1151 (46%)
OR (95% CI) ref 0.732 (0.661–0.812)***
Avoiding all 3 Csb No 2121 (60%) 1097 (44%)
Yes 1393 (40%) 1389 (56%)
OR (95% CI) ref 1.928 (1.737–2.139)***
Avoiding closed spaces with poor ventilation No 1279 (36%) 621 (25%)
Yes 2235 (64%) 1865 (75%)
OR (95% CI) ref 1.719 (1.534–1.926)***
Avoiding crowded places No 901 (26%) 360 (15%)
Yes 2612 (74%) 2127 (85%)
OR (95% CI) ref 2.038 (1.781–2.333)***
Avoiding close-contact setting No 1798 (51%) 866 (35%)
Yes 1715 (49%) 1620 (65%)
OR (95% CI) ref 1.961 (1.764–2.180)***
Non-scheduled visit to drinking places No 2317 (66%) 2162 (87%)
Yes 1197 (34%) 325 (13%)
OR (95% CI) ref 0.291 (0.254–0.333)***
Going to eat No 1208 (34%) 1139 (46%)
Yes 2306 (66%) 1348 (54%)
OR (95% CI) ref 0.620 (0.558–0.689)***
Perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 No 708 (20%) 723 (29%)
Yes 2806 (80%) 1763 (71%)
OR (95% CI) ref 0.615 (0.546–0.693)***
Being afraid of transmitting COVID-19 to others No 909 (26%) 973 (39%)
Yes 2604 (74%) 1514 (61%)
OR (95% CI) ref 0.543 (0.486–0.607)***
Wearing facemask No 217 (6%) 134 (5%)
Yes 3296 (94%) 2352 (95%)
OR (95% CI) ref 1.156 (0.926–1.442)
  1. ***p < 0.001
  2. aUnivariate binomial analyses were conducted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI])
  3. b‘Avoiding all 3 Cs’ meaning that avoiding ‘closed spaces with poor ventilation’, ‘crowded places’ and ‘close contact setting’, such as close-range conversations