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Table 3 Multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of both individual and community-level factors associated with childhood immunization in sub-Saharan African countries

From: Determinants of full childhood immunization among children aged 12–23 months in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis using Demographic and Health Survey Data

Variables Model I
AOR (95% CI)
Model II
AOR (95% CI)
Model III
AOR (95% CI)
Model IV
AOR (95% CI)
Maternal education
 No education   1   1
 Primary   1.20 (1.07, 1.36)*   1.14 (1.06, 1.23)*
 Secondary and above   1.81 (1.54, 2.13)*   1.38 (1.25, 1.53)*
Maternal age in years
 15-24   1   1
 25-34   0.78 (0.70, 0.88)*   0.78 (0.69, 0.87)*
 35-49   0.64 (0.55, 0.75)*   0.64 (0.55, 0.74)*
Number of living children
 1-4   1   1
 5 and above   1.24 (1.10, 1.41)*   1.25 (1.10, 1.41)*
Maternal employment status
 Housewives   1   1
 Working any sector   0.75 (0.68, 0.84)*   0.85 (0.80, 0.91)*
Place of delivery
 Home   1   1
 Health facility   1.51 (1.40, 1.63)*   1.51 (1.41, 1.63)*
 Sex of household head     
 Male   1   1
 Female   1.07 (0.95, 1.20)   1.02 (0.95, 1.10)*
Wealth index
 Poor   1   1
 Middle   1.14 (1.02, 1.28)*   1.16 (1.07, 1.25)*
 Rich   0.92 (0.82, 1.02)   1.29 (1.18, 1.40)*
ANC visit
 No antenatal visits     
 1-3   2.02 (1.84, 2.22)*   1.46 (1.28, 1.67)*
 4 and above   2.51 (2.29, 2.76)*   2.01 (1.76, 2.30)*
Father education
 No education   1   1
 Primary   1.34 (1.24, 1.46)*   1.19 (1.11, 1.27)*
 Secondary and above   1.71 (1.55, 1.90)*   1.91 (1.77, 2.07)*
PNC visit
 No   1   1
 Yes   1.35 (1.22,1.49)*   1.55 (1.46, 1.65)*
Marital status
 Having ever been married   1   1
 Currently married   1.48 (1.38,1.59)*   1.41 (1.27, 1.56)*
Media exposure
 Not exposed    1 1
 Exposed to mass media    1.38 (1.31, 1.47)* 1.11 (1.04, 1.18)*
Distance to health facility
 Big problem    1 1
 Not a big problem    1.49 (1.39, 1.60)* 1.42 (1.28, 1.47)*
Residence
 Rural    1 1
 Urban    1.45 (1.36, 1.54)* 1.23 (1.15, 1.32)*
Country
 Democratic Republic of Congo    1 1
 Ethiopia    1.37 (1.23, 1.54)* 1.40 (1.28, 1.62)*
 Ghana    4.95 (4.23, 5.78)* 5.04 (4.30, 5.90)*
 Malawi    4.93 (4.43, 5.49)* 5.11 (4.58, 5.71)*
 Namibia    3.74 (3.20, 4.36)* 3.78 (3.21, 4.44)*
 Rwanda    3.49 (3.12, 3.90)* 3.78 (3.37, 4.25)*
 Tanzania    4.31 (3.80, 4.90)* 4.27 (3.75, 4.86)*
 Senegal    0.93 (0.85, 1.02) 0.86 (0.78, 0.94)*
 Zambia    3.17 (2.84, 3.53)* 3.32 (2.97, 3.71)*
  1. 1 reference category for categorical variable
  2. *Reference p value < 0.05