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Table 4 A meta-analysis of predictors of incidence of tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia (2010–2019)

From: Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV patients after initiation of antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Observation HR 95%CI p value of Q I2 (%) Tau2 Q-statistic P value of estimate
Functional status  
 Working (ref) 4 1       
 Ambulatory 1.46 [0.84, 2.51] p = 0.001 78.8 0.29 18.83 p = 0.18
 Bedridden 2.01 [1.21, 3.35] p = 0.137 42.7% 0.13 6.98 p = 0.007
Anemia status  
 Not anemic (ref) 8 1       p < 0.001
 Anemic 2.30 [1.75, 3.02] p = 0.179 31.2 0.05 10.17
WHO clinical staging  
 Stage I/II (ref) 10 1       p < 0.001
 Stage III/IV 2.26 [1.70, 3.02] p = 0.048 47.2 0.09 17.05
Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy  
 Yes(ref) 5 1       p = 0.007
 No 2.16 [1.23, 3.72] p = 0.062 55.3 0.20 8.95
Isoniazid preventing therapy  
 Yes (ref) 7 1       p = 0.001
 No 3.67 [1.73, 7.76] p < 0.001 79.1 0.74 28.7
CD4 cell count  
 Greater than 200 6 1       p = 0.002
 Less than or equal to 200 2.12 [1.31, 3.43] p < 0.001 90.8 0.32 54.38
Previous history of tuberculosis  
 No 3 1       
 Yes 1.49 [0.77, 2.89] p = 0.004 73.5 0.39 15.11 p = 0.24
Gender  
 Female 5 1       
 Male 1.37 [1.16, 1.63] p = 0.588 0 0 2.82 p < 0.001
Family size
 Less than five   1       
 Five or more 3 1.18 [0.89, 1.56] p = 0.29 19.0 0.01 2.47 p = 0.26