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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression analysis for risk factors of neonatal death in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016 data

From: Risk factor of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia: multilevel analysis of 2016 Demographic and Health Survey

Variables Model I AOR (95% CI) Model II AOR (95% CI) Model III AOR (95% CI) Model IV AOR (95% CI)
Individual-level factors
 Sex of neonate
  Male   1   1
  Female   0.59 (0.47,0.73)   0.59 (0.42, 0.83)*
 Age of respondent at 1st birth
  ≤ 16   1   1
  > 16   0.71 (0.65,0.78)*   0.75 (0.59, 0.95)*
 Number of ANC visits during pregnancy
  ≥ 4   1   1
  1–3   1.16 (1.05, 1.28)*   1.09 (1.01, 1.18)*
  No visit   2.70 (2.37, 3.09)*   2.33 (2.09, 2.61)*
 Duration of pregnancy
  Term   1   1
  Pre-term   6.70 (5.57, 8.06)*   5.97 (4.96, 7.20)*
 Preceding birth interval in month
  > 24   1   1
  ≤ 24   1.62 (1.45, 1.81)*   1.51 (1.35, 1.68)*
 Birth order
  First order   1   1
  2–4   1.16 (1.06, 1.28)*   1.51 (1.28, 1.79)*
  ≥ 5   1.93 (1.77, 2.10)*   2.15 (1.75, 2.64)*
 Number of TT injections during pregnancy
  ≥ 4   1   1
  1–3   1.51 (1.28, 1.79)*   1.54 (1.30, 1.82)*
  Not received   2.20 (1.86, 2.61)*   2.28 (1.92, 2.71)*
 Type of birth
  Single birth   1   1
  Multiple birth   4.60 (4.09, 5.17)   3.18 (2.78, 3.63)*
 Place of delivery
  Health facility   1   1
  Home   2.23 (1.66, 2.98)*   1.99 (1.48, 2.69)*
 Size of child at birth
  Average   1   1
  Smaller than average   1.92 (1.77, 2.09)*   1.58 (1.46, 1.71)*
  Larger than average   1.15 (0.98, 1.34)   1.09 (0.88, 1.33)
 Duration of breastfeeding
  Still breastfeeding   1   1
  Ever breastfed, not currently breastfeeding   1.22 (1.01,1.47)*   1.12 (1.01, 1.24)*
  Never breastfed   2.70 (2.37, 3.09)*   2.43 (2.17, 2.72)*
 Mothers age
  15–24   1   1
  25–34   1.10 (0.94, 1.29)   1.10 (0.85, 1.40)
  35–49   2.12 (1.76, 2.55)*   2.03 (1.68, 2.46)*
 Mothers’ education
  Secondary and above   1   1
  Primary   1.35 (1.10, 1.65)*   1.21 (1.04, 1.40)*
  No education   1.66 (1.35, 2.04)*   1.58 (1.46, 1.71)*
 Wealth index
  Richer   1   1
  Middle   1.39 (1.25, 1.55)*   1.21 (1.06, 1.37)*
  Poor   1.52 (1.41, 1.64)*   1.29 (1.17, 1.41)*
 Fathers’ education
  Secondary and above   1   1
  Primary   1.28 (1.10, 1.50)*   1.19 (1.02, 1.39)*
  No education   1.34 (1.14, 1.57)*   1.32 (1.12, 1.54)*
Community-level factors
 Residence
  Urban    1 1
  Rural    2.06 (1.22, 3.47)* 2.71 (2.23, 3.29)*
 Region
  Tigray    1 1
  Afar    2.07 (1.01, 4.27)* 1.32 (0.61, 2.86)
  Amhara    3.72 (1.86, 7.43)* 3.40 (1.60, 7.19)*
  Oromia    4.86 (2.53, 9.31)* 3.72 (1.84, 7.52)*
  Somali    4.92 (2.57, 9.40)* 3.36 (1.66, 6.80)*
  Benishangul    3.34 (1.61, 6.94)* 2.58 (1.19, 5.60)*
  SNNPR    2.92 (1.46, 5.84)* 2.62 (1.25, 5.49)*
  Gambela    3.16 (1.48, 6.76)* 1.95 (0.86, 4.43)
  Harari    3.28 (1.48, 7.26)* 3.53 (1.50, 8.32)*
  Addis Ababa    0.40 (0.05, 3.29) 0.49 (0.06, 4.01)
  Dire Dawa    3.01 (1.24, 7.34)* 3.11 (1.20, 8.03)*
 Source of drinking water
  Protected    1 1
  Unprotected    1.26 (1.05, 1.53)* 1.35 (1.16, 1.58)*
 Improved toilet facility
  Yes    1 1
  No    1.43 (1.09, 1.88)* 1.78 (1.50, 2.12)*
  1. 1 Reference category for categorical variable and * reference p-value < 0.001