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Table 2 Working conditions of the study participants (n = 338)

From: Factors associated with self-rated health among mineworkers in Zambia: a cross-sectional study

  Regular employees (n = 213) Contract employees (n = 125) P value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
n % n %
Job category
 Nonunderground work 102 47.9 87 69.6 < 0.001
 Underground work 111 52.1 38 30.4  
Years of working 13.9 (8.0) 10.0 (8.0) < 0.001 a
Income per month (Kwacha) 4681 (1994) 3595 (3197) < 0.001 a
Working hours per week
 40 h or more 176 85.4 103 85.1 0.938
 Less than 40 h 30 14.6 18 14.9  
Nightshift work
 No 108 50.9 62 50.8 0.983
 Yes 104 49.1 60 49.2  
Overtime work
 No 70 33.2 45 39.1 0.282
 Yes 141 66.8 70 60.9  
Breaks during work
 No break 50 25.9 23 18.9 0.113
 Every 1 to 3 h 56 29.0 31 25.4  
 Once (30 min to 1 h) per shift 50 25.9 47 28.5  
 Others 37 19.2 21 17.2  
Provided a meal/snack at workplace
 No 94 46.3 23 19.2 < 0.001
 Yes 109 53.7 97 80.8  
Guaranteed paid holidays
 No paid holidays 31 17.6 27 25.7 0.094 b
 Less than 20 days 22 12.5 18 17.1  
 20 days or more 123 69.9 60 57.1  
Took a paid holiday in the last year
 No 63 33.7 47 45.6 0.045
 Yes 124 66.3 56 54.4  
Sickness insurance provided by the company
 No 43 21.4 60 52.2 < 0.001
 Yes 158 78.6 55 47.8  
Guaranteed sick leave
 No 61 31.6 46 42.2 0.064
 Yes 132 68.4 63 57.8  
Experience of taking sick leave
 No 114 60.6 64 58.7 0.744
 Yes 74 39.4 45 41.3  
  1. A t testa, chi-square test, or Cochran-Armitage testb was conducted
  2. Missing values were excluded from the analysis
  3. c1 US$ = approximately 9.8 Zambian Kwacha at the time of data collection