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Table 2 Multilevel logistic regression analysis of both individual and community-level factors associated with alcohol use in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016

From: Prevalence and predictors of alcohol use among adult males in Ethiopia: multilevel analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016

Individual and community-level variables Models
Null model Model I Model II Model III
AOR (95%CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Men age
 15–29 years   1   1
 30–44 years   1.28 (1.07, 1.54)   1.30 (1.08, 1.56)*
 45–59 years   1.38 (1.09, 1.74)   1.38 (1.10, 1.74)*
Household head
 Male   1   1
 Female   1.05 (0.87, 1.27)   1.09 (0.90, 1.32)
Marital status
 Had a partner   1   1
 Not having a partner   0.78 (0.65, 0.94)   0.78 (0.64, 1.02)
Religion
 Orthodox   1   1
 Muslim   0.006 (0.005,0.08)   0.01 (0.008, 0.044)
 Protestant   0.05 (0.039, 0.062)   0.06 (0.054, 0.083)
 Others   0.36 (0.24, 0.55)   0.42 (0.28, 0.63)
Men education
 Unable to read and write   1   1
 Primary education   0.83 (0.65, 1.06)   0.87 (0.68, 1.11)
 Secondary education   0.74 (0.55, 0.99)   0.80 (0.60, 1.08)
 Higher education   1.30 (0.95, 1.78)   1.40 (0.99, 1.92)
Men working status
 Not working   1   1
 Working   0.78 (0.54, 1.12)   0.83 (0.57, 1.02)
Media exposure
 No exposed   1   1
 Exposed   1.67 (1.40, 2.00)   1.69 (1.41, 2.20)*
Wealth index
 Poor   1   1
 Middle   0.91 (0.73, 1.13)   0.85 (0.68, 1.06)
 Richer   0.84 (0.69, 1.03)   0.83 (0.68, 1.03)
Smoking status
 Non-smoker   1   1
 Smoker   1.89 (1.48, 2.41)   2.18 (1.71, 2.79)*
Khat chewing
 No   1   1
 Yes   2.77 (2.28, 3.37)   3.08 (2.54, 3.74)*
Occupation
 Had occupation   1   1
 Had no occupation   0.30 (0.20, 0.46)   0.34 (0.22, 0.51)*
Literacy
 Can read   1   1
 Cannot read   0.95 (0.76, 1.19)   1.01 (0.80, 1.26)
Residence
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    0.27 (0.17, 0.41) 0.80 (0.56, 1.15)
Region
 Tigray    1 1
 Afar    .0007 (.0003, 0.0007) 0.02 (0.009, 0.042)*
 Amhara    0.62 (0.31, 1.25) 1.05 (0.61, 1.81)
 Oromia    0.008 (0.004, 0.017) 0.06 (0.039, 0.11)*
 Somali    0.0001 (0.0003, 0.00) 0.004 (0.001, 0.011)*
 Benishangul    0.04 (0.021, 0.093) 0.33 (0.18, 0.58)*
 SNNPR    0.1 (0.005, 0.02) 0.07 (0.04, 0.12)*
 Gambela    0.03 (0.016, 0.073) 0.15 (0.08, 0.27)*
 Harari    0.02 (0.001, 0.005) 0.01 (0.008, 0.032)*
 Addis Ababa    0.048 (0.02, 0.106) 0.21 (0.11, 0.39)*
 Dire Dawa    0.003 (0.001, 0.007) 0.03 (0.016, 0.059)*
Random effects
ICC% 77.82 47.23 48.84 29.04
PCV% 1 74.52 72.79 88.38
MOR 51.41 7.33 7.83 3.83
Model fitness
Log-likelihood ratio − 5224 − 3920 − 4907 − 3690
Deviance 10448 7840 9817 7380
  1. CI confidence interval, AOR adjusted odds ratio, Others traditional religion followers
  2. *Significant at p value = 0.05