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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression on the association of food cooking places with ARI in under-five children in controlling other variables, EDHS, 2005–2016

From: Place of food cooking is associated with acute respiratory infection among under-five children in Ethiopia: multilevel analysis of 2005–2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey data

Variables Category Model-I
OR(95% CI)
Model-II
OR (95% CI)
Model-III
OR (95% CI)
Child age 0 years    1.00
1 years    0.90 (0.74, 1.09)
2 years    0.73 (0.60, 0.88)
3 years    0.66 (0.55, 0.79)
4 years    0.48 (0.39, 0.59)
Child size Very large    1.00
Larger than average    0.75 (0.58, 0.96)
Average    0.73 (0.60, 0.89)
Smaller than average    0.85 (0.65, 1.11)
Very small    1.16 (0.94, 1.43)
Stunting Stunted    1.00
Normal    1.13 (0.94, 1.35)
Underweighting Underweight    1.00
Normal    0.77 (0.61, 0.98)
Wasting Wasted    1.00
Normal    1.00 (0.81, 1.23)
Education of father No education    1.00
Primary    1.10 (0.92, 1.31)
Secondary    1.02 (0.73, 1.41)
Higher    0.95 (0.53, 1.80)
Occupation of father Did not work    1.00
Professional    0.64 (0.36, 1.13)
Sales    0.84 (0.51, 1.38)
Agriculture    0.92 (0.59, 1.44)
Services    1.15 (0.56, 2.36)
Skilled    0.89 (0.48, 1.53)
Unskilled    1.00 (0.50, 1.59)
Other    0.51 (0.26, 1.02)
Occupation of mother Did not work    1.00
Sales    1.22 (0.97, 1.52)
Agriculture    1.17 (0.97, 1.41)
Skilled    1.00 (0.71, 1.41)
Other    0.69 (0.45, 1.04)
Education of mother No education    1.00
Primary    1.09 (0.91, 1.30)
Secondary    0.98 (0.62, 1.56)
Higher    1.42 (0.67, 3.00)
Quintile Poorest    1.00
Poorer    0.93 (0.73, 1.19)
Middle    0.96 (0.74, 1.23)
Higher    0.98 (0.76, 1.25)
Highest    0.75 (0.56, 1.01)
Frequency of listening radio the last week Not at all    1.00
Less than once a week    1.23 (1.01, 1.50)
At least once a week    1.50 (1.19, 1.88)
Almost everyday    0.96 (0.54, 1.70)
Frequency of watching television in the last week of survey Not at all    1.00
Less than once a week    0.84 (0.67, 1.06)
At least once a week    0.59 (0.38, 0.93)
Almost everyday    0.26 (0.05, 1.34)
Age of mother 15-19    1.00
20-24    0.94 (0.62, 1.41)
25-29    0.91 (0.61, 1.36)
30-34    0.96 (0.64, 1.44)
35-39    0.87 (0.57, 1.34)
40-44    1.07 (0.65, 1.78)
44-49    0.64 (0.36, 1.15)
Toilet type Unimproved    1.00
Improved    0.96 (0.71, 1.29)
Drinking water source Unimproved    1.00
Improved    1.02 (0.86, 1.21)
Residence Rural    1.00
Urban    0.77(0.53, 1.14)
Food cooking place Inside the house   1.00 1.00
In separate building   0.86 (0.75, 0.99) 0.81(0.69, 0.96)
Outside the house   0.70 (0.56, 0.88) 0.56 (0.40, 0.75)
Random intercept for households within survey   0.13a 0.10a 0 .003
Random intercept for survey   0.37a 0.29a 0.39a
Random slope for place of cooking    .08a 0.11a
  1. aThe denotes the statistical significance of random intercept and slope