Skip to main content

Table 2 Acute respiratory infection on under-five children across different variable selected, EDHS 20052016

From: Place of food cooking is associated with acute respiratory infection among under-five children in Ethiopia: multilevel analysis of 2005–2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey data

Variables Category Weighted frequency ARI, weighted percentage (95% CI)  
2005 2011 2016 Pooled 2005 2011 2016 Pooled
Breast feeding of child Never 178 153 372 703 13.1 (6.1, 26.0) 8.7 (3.8, 18.5) 10.1 (5.0, 19.3) 10.5 (6.7, 16.2)
Ever 9696 10545 9823 30064 12.7 (11.5, 14.0) 11.9 (10.8, 13.1) 11.2 (10.0, 12.5) 11.9 (11.3, 12.7)
Father’s education No education 5750 5257 4636 15643 12.0 (10.6, 13.5) 12.3 (10.7, 14.0) 10.6 (9.0, 12.5) 11.7 (10.8, 12.6)
Primary 3021 4474 3827 11322 14.0 (12.1, 16.1) 11.8 (10.2, 13.5) 12.9 (10.9, 15.2) 12.7 (11.6, 13.9)
Secondary 992 514 748 2254 13.8 (11.0, 17.3) 10.3 (6.9, 15.0) 9.7 (6.4, 14.5) 11.6 (9.7, 13.9)
Higher 107 332 411 851 3.3 (1.0, 10.5) 9.5 (5.2, 16.5) 3.7 (1.8, 7.3) 5.9 (3.8, 9.0)
Father’s occupation Did not work 43 89 736 869 22.5 (9.6, 44.4) 19.7 (8.0, 40.7) 11.6 (7.9, 16.8) 13.0 (9.2, 17.8)
Professional 166 311 391 868 6.2 (2.9, 12.5) 11.0 (6.2, 18.9) 4.4 (2.4, 7.9) 7.1 (4.8, 10.4)
Sales 516 830 653 1999 7.6 (5.1, 11.2) 11.7 (8.5, 15.8) 11.0 (7.5, 0.160) 10.4 (8.4, 12.8)
Agriculture 8674 8474 6384 23533 13.2 (11.9, 14.6) 12.1 (10.9, 13.4) 11.99 (10.3, 13.7) 12.5 (11.7, 13.3)
Services 58 149 253 461 12.1 (5.0, 26.8) 14.8 (7.1, 0.283) 10.6 (6.2, 17.5) 12.1 (8.1, 17.8)
Skilled 232 569 537 1338 12.7 (7.2, 21.4) 7.9 (5.0, 12.1) 11.5 (7.9, 16.6) 10.2 (7.8, 13.1)
Unskilled 164 111 337 613 11.0 (6.6, 17.8) 12.5 (5.0, 27.9) 12.1 (8.2, 0.176) 11.9 (8.8, 15.9)
Other 15 68 341 425 - 18.3 (8.8, 0.344) 5.8 (3.4, 9.6) 7.6 (4.8, 11.9)
Mother’s occupation Did not work 7044 5009 5679 17732 11.8 (10.3, 13.4) 11.3 (9.9, 13.0) 10.3 (8.9, 11.9) 11.2 (10.2, 12.0)
Sales 709 1762 1172 3643 16.1 (12.5, 20.4) 13.0 (10.7, 15.8) 12.8 (10.2, 16.0) 13.6 (11.9, 15.4)
Agriculture 1880 2889 2305 7074 15.5 (12.9, 18.4) 12.6 (10.9, 14.6) 12.8 (10.4, 15.9) 13.5 (12,2, 14.2)
Skilled 147 735 372 1254 9.6 (4.7, 18.7) 10.8 (7.7, 15.0) 11.7 (6.8, 19.6) 10.9 (8.3, 14.2)
Other 174 240 668 1082 9.9 (5.6, 16.9) (8.9 (5.1, 0.149) 8.7 (5.9, 12.6) 8.9 (6.8, 11.7)
Mother’s education No education 7863 7446 6750 22059 12.6 (11.3, 14.1) 11.8 (10.5, 13.2) 11.1 (9.6, 12.7) 11.9 (11.1, 12.7)
Primary 1679 2905 2734 7318 13.8 (11.3, 16.6) 12.4 (10.5, 14.5) 12.4 (10.4, 14.6) 12.7 (11.5, 14.0)
Secondary 388 230 472 1090 10.4 (6.7, 15.9) 10.6 (6.1, 17.9) 8.2 (5.3, 12.5) 9.5 (7.3, 12.4)
Higher 42 147 239 428 2.2 (0.6, 7.7) 8.4 (4.2, 16.2) 4.8 (2.3, 10.0) 5.8 (3.5, 9.5)
Household wealth quintile Poorest 1904 1613 1510 5027 12.2 (10.0, 14.8) 11.7 (9.4, 14.4) 10.7 (8.3, 13.6) 11.6 (10.2, 13.1)
Poorer 2206 3101 2551 7858 10.4 (8.6, 12.5) 12.0 (10.2, 14.0) 12.0 (9.7, 14.7) 11.5 (10.4, 12.8)
Middle 2331 2553 2738 7622 14.6 (12.2, 17.4) 12.0 (9.9, 14.5) 11.8 (9.7, 14.4) 12.7 (11.4, 14.2)
Higher 2422 2135 2296 6853 9.7 (12.7, 17.0) 11.4 (9.5, 13.7) 11.9 (9.7, 14.5) 12.7 (11.5, 14.1)
Highest 1109 1327 1100 3536 11.7 (7.5, 12.5) 12.3 (9.5, 15.8) 6.5 (4.4, 9.4) 9.7 (8.2, 11.4)
Child sex Male 5050 5531 5222 15803 12.8 (11.2, 14.5) 11.7 (10.3, 13.3) 11.0 (9.6, 12.5) 11.8 (11.0, 12.7)
Female 4921 5198 4973 15092 12.6 (11.1, 14.3) 12.1 (10.8, 13.5) 11.3 (0.097, 13.1) 12.0 (11.1, 12.9)
Child age O years 2208 2322 2243 6773 15.8 (13.3, 18.7) 14.7 (12.7, 17.0) 13.4 (11.2, 16.0) 14.6 (13.3, 16.1)
1 years 1865 1875 1965 5705 14.7 (12.6, 17.1) 13.3 (11.1, 15.8) 13.8 (11.5, 16.5) 13.9 (12.6, 15.3)
2 years 1865 2007 1892 5763 13.2 (11.1, 15.6) 12.0 (9.9, 14.4) 11.0 (8.8, 13.7) 12.1 (10.8, 13.5)
3 years 2063 2321 1960 6344 10.9 (9.2, 12.9) 11.0 (9.1, 13.1) 10.3 (8.4, 12.5) 10.7 (9.6, 11.9)
4 years 1970 2204 2135 6310 8.7 (7.1, 10.6) 8.6 (6.9, 10.6) 7.1 (5.5, 9.3) 8.1 (7.1, 9.3)
Age of mother 15–19 485 416 348 1249 13.0 (9.0, 18.4) 15.1 (9.9, 22.4) 13.6 (8.3, 21.3) 13.9 (10.9, 17.4)
20–24 1959 2109 1887 5955 13.2 (10.7, 16.2) 11.7 (9.7, 14.1) 13.1 (11.0, 15.6) 12.6 (11.3, 14.1)
25–29 2874 3442 3089 9405 13.1 (11.1, 15.4) 11.9 (10.2, 13.7) 9.8 (8.1, 11.8) 11.6 (10.5, 12.7)
30–34 2081 2171 2350 6603 12.1 (10.1, 14.4) 11.0 (9.1, 13.2) 12.2 (9.9, 15.0) 11.7 (10.5, 13.1)
35–39 1558 1637 1623 4818 12.5 (10.0, 15.5) 11.9 (9.8,14.5) 9.8 (7.7, 12.4) 11.4 (10.1, 12.9)
40–44 709 714 675 2098 12.8 (9.4, 17.2) 14.6 (10.0, 20.8) 19.8 (6.9, 13.8) 12.4 (10.1, 15.2)
44–49 306 240 223 768 10.7 (6.6, 16.8) 8.0 (4.7, 13.3) 11.8 (6.6, 20.2) 10.2 (7.5, 13.7)
Type of fuel used Solid biomass fuel 9811 10553 9809 12995 12.8 (11.6, 14.1) 11.9 (10.8, 13.1) 11.2 (10.0, 12.5) 11.0 (11.3, 12.7)
Non-solid fuel 130 53 326 508 4.7 (2.7, 8.0) 6.5 (1.3, 26.8) 6.8 (3.8, 12.0) 6.2 (3.9, 9.8)
Location of food preparation or cooking Inside house 7050 6109 4328 17488 13.4 (11.9, 15.1) 12.2 (10.7, 13.9) 12.0 (10.4, 13.9) 12.6 (11.2, 13.6)
Separate building 2343 3770 4770 10883 12.0 (10.1, 14.1) 11.0 (9.4, 12.7) 11.0 (9.4, 12.9) 11.2 (10.2, 12.3)
Outside the house 575 843 1088 2506 6.8 (4.5, 10.2) 12.0 (10.0, 16.8) 8.3 (6.0, 11.4) 9.6 (7.9, 11.5)
Child size Very large 2175 2028 1790 5992 14.9 (12.2, 18.1) 11.0 (9.1, 13.3) 14.1 (11.7, 16.9) 13.3 (11.9, 15.0)
Larger than average 943 1317 1417 3677 10.1 (7.8, 12.8) 12.2 (9.9, 14.8) 7.7 (5.8, 10.2) 9.9 (8.6, 11.4)
Average 4043 4184 4275 12503 11.7 (10.1, 13.5) 9.3 (8.0, 10.9) 9.7 (8.2, 11.5) 10.2 (9.3, 11.2)
Smaller than average 724 964 1019 2708 8.9 (6.4, 12.1) 13.8 (10.7, 17.7) 11.1 (8.2, 14.8) 11.5 (9.7, 13.5)
Very small 2071 2225 1619 5915 14.9 (12.7, 17.5) 16.5 (14.2, 19.0) 14.7 (12.2, 17.6) 15.4 (14.1, 16.9)
Toilet type Unimproved 9394 9271 9117 2898 12.7 (11.5, 14.1) 12.2 (11.1, 13.5) 11.3 (10.1, 12.7) 9.6 (8.0, 11.5)
Improved 546 1335 1018 27782 11.7 (8.5, 16.0) 9.6 (7.2, 12.6) 8.6 (6.2, 11.8) 12.1 (11.4, 12.9)
Drinking water source Unimproved 5683 4926 3182 16301 13.4 (11.6, 15.4) 12.5 (11.0, 14.3) 11.4 (9.9, 13.2) 11.6 (10.7, 12.5)
Improved 4255 5672 5692 13110 12.2 (10.7, 13.8) 11.1 (9.8, 12.6) 11.2 (9.2, 13.6) 12.5 (11.4, 13.6)
Residence Urban 724 1372 1108 3204 8.8 (6.0, 12.9) 9.3 (7.2, 12.0) 7.0 (5.0, 9.6) 8.4 (7.0, 10.0)
Rural 9247 9357 9087 27691 13.0 (11.0, 14.4) 12.3 (11.1, 13.5) 11.6 (10.3, 13.1) 12.3 (11.6, 13.1)
Stunting Normal 2217 6201 5987 14404 11.7 (9.9, 13.8) 11.4 (10.0, 13.0) 10.9 (9.5, 12.4) 12.0 (11.1, 12.9)
Stunted 2205 4388 3678 10272 13.8 (11.8, 16.1) 12.4 (11.0, 13.8) 12.0 (10.2, 14.0) 11.7 (10.7, 12.8)
Underweighting Normal 2217 7734 7368 17318 11.7 (9.9, 13.8) 11.2 (10.1, 12.5) 10.8 (9.6, 12.1) 11.4 (10.6, 12.2)
Underweighted 2205 2855 2327 7388 13.8 (11.8, 16.1) 14.0 (12.1, 16.1) 12.9 (10.6, 15.6) 13.0 (11.8, 14.3)
Wasting Normal 2217 9620 8710 20547 11.7 (9.9, 13.8) 11.5 (10.4, 1.26) 10.9 (9.7, 12.2) 11.5 (10.7, 12.3)
Wasted 2205 968 978 4151 13.8 (11.8, 16.1) 16.8 (13.7, 20.4) 14.8 (11.3, 19.1) 13.6 (12.0, 15.3)
Radio listening frequency in the last week of survey Not at all 6486 5379 7549 19414 12.4 (110, 139) 11.9 (10.4, 13.5) 10.5 (9.2, 11.9) 11.5 (10.7, 12.4)
Less than once a week 2375 3439 1299 7113 13.6 (11.4, 161) 11.7 (9.8, 13.9) 12.3 (9.5, 15.8) 12.4 (11.1, 13.9)
At least once a week 305 1903 1347 3556 18.3 (12.1, 26.8) 12.2 (10.1, 14.6) 13.5 (10.6, 17.1) 13.2 (11.5, 15.2)
Almost everyday 805 805 10.4 (7.5, 14.4) 10.4 (7.5, 14.4)
Television watching Frequency in the last week of survey Not at all 9125 7910 8408 24742 12.9 (11.6, 14.4) 12.6 (11.2, 14.1) 11.1 (9.8, 12.6) 12.2 (11.4, 13.1)
Less than once a week 611 2595 966 4172 11.8 (7.9, 17.3) 11.8 (9.8, 14.1) 14.0 (10.3, 18.7) 12.3 (10.6, 14.2)
At least once a week 59 909 821 1789 9.7 (3.3, 25.0) 6.9 (4.6, 10.1) 7.9 (5.5, 11.1) 7.4 (5.7, 9.5)
Almost everyday 160 160 3.5 (1.9, 6.6) 3.5 (1.9, 6.6)
  1. Note: No education: those who did not attend school, Primary: those who completed grades 1–8, Secondary: those who completed grades 9–12, Higher: those with a college certificate, diploma, or above; Improved water: household’s drinking water source is from protected spring, protected well, and piped water, Unimproved water source: household’s drinking water source is from unprotected spring, unprotected well, tanker truck, surface water, irrigation channel, and cart with small truck; Improved toilet: pit latrine with slab; VIP, flush to septic tank, flush to sewer system, and flush to pit latrine compost; Unimproved toilet: pit latrine without slab, bucket latrine, hanging latrine, no-facility, or open field; occupation of mother and house head is based on EDHS category