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Table 2 Populations that include people living in severely inadequate and insecure accommodation

From: “Staying at home” to tackle COVID-19 pandemic: rhetoric or reality? Cross-cutting analysis of nine population groups vulnerable to homelessness in Japan

  Non-regular workers and self-employed individuals including single-female-parent household Impoverished LGBTQ Internally displaced people (evacuees from Fukushima after nuclear disaster) Migrants—technical interns, international students, undocumented migrants, long-term foreign residents, and undocumented foreigners Adolescents and children abused in domestic settings
Characteristics and vulnerabilities • 2.6 million out of 21 million non-regular workers reluctantly took non-regular jobs due to lack of regular employment opportunities [53].
• Non-regular workers’ wage is 65% of regular workers’ wage [54].
• In 1.2 million single-female-parent household, 47% are non-regular workers or self-employed [55].
• The relative poverty rate of single-parent families is 50.8% [56]. Income of single-female-parent household is 38% of that of household with children [57].
• LGBTQ accounts for 10% of the population aged between 20 and 60 years [58].
• A total of 5.2% of MSM web-survey respondents ever lost accommodation, 22.7% sold sex, and 56.1% worried or stressed about income or debt [59].
• Less than 40% of property owners welcome same-sex couples as tenants [60].
• Sexual minorities may face discrimination in terms of access to housing [61].
• 30,000 people are not allowed to live in their home town in Fukushima if the area is classified as a mandatory evacuate zone as of April 2020 [62].
• A sizeable number of people voluntarily evacuated from their residential areas [63]. This number was estimated at 31,000 as of 2015 [64].
• After evacuation, non-regular workers among Fukushima evacuees increased [64], income decreased, and expenditure increased [64].
• Housing support based on the Disaster Relief Act ended in 2017, which affected more than 12,000 households [65].
• Blending into destination communities is difficult partly due to stigma and discrimination against Fukushima evacuees [66].
• A total of 410,972 technical interns were noted as of 2019, out of which 2.1% (9,052 people) are reported to have disappeared and may be labeled as undocumented foreigners [67].
• 83,811 foreign students are studying at language schools [68], many of whom are considered cheap labor [69].
• Out of 10,000 asylum seekers per year in Japan, only 40 are accepted [70]. Immigration detention centers reported 1253 detainees as of June 2019 [71].
• 2,829,416 long-term residents, including Japanese descents [72].
• Undocumented foreigners are excluded from social protection schemes.
• 230,000 adolescents and children roam the streets at night [73].
• Physical and/or mental abuse in a domestic environment drive them away from home and out on the streets [74].
• In 2018, 160,000 adolescent and child abuse cases (up to 18 years old) were reported [75].
• The most prevalent type of abuse was psychological abuse, followed by physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse [75, 76].
• Sexual exploitation of adolescent girls who roam the streets [77].
Socio-economic consequences of COVID-19 • Loss of income [78].
• Increased food expenses due to school closure [79].
• Threatened by enforcement of revealing sexual orientation in the case of contracting the novel coronavirus [80]. • Loss of income [78].
• Suspension of regular exchange events by evacuees [81].
• Loss of income [82].
• Loss of resident status (Visa expiration) [83].
• Worsened cases of child/adolescent abuse [84].
• Less opportunities for recognizing child/adolescent abuse due to school closure [85].
Risk of COVID-19 infections and progression • Only 17.0% of non-regular workers are working from home compared with 27.9% of regular workers [86].
• Delay in access to medical services due to lack of health insurance [87].
• Inevitability of going out for work.
• Delay in access to medical services due to lack of health insurance [87].
• Inevitability of going out for work.
• Delay in access to medical services due to lack of health insurance [87].
• Inevitability of going out for work.
• Delay in access to medical services due to lack of health insurance [87].
• Sharing a room [88].
• Driven to flee from child/adolescent abuse and gather in closed spaces [89].
• Sharing a room and amenities at a temporary custody facility [90].
Existing measures most relevant to vulnerabilities • Unemployment benefit of employment insurance [91].
• Job applicant benefits for daily workers [92].
• Unemployment benefit of employment insurance [91].
• Job applicant benefits for daily workers [92].
• Unemployment benefit of employment insurance [91].
• Job applicant benefits for daily workers [92].
• Unemployment benefit of employment insurance [91].
• Job applicant benefits for daily workers [92].
• Act on the Partial Amendment to the Child Welfare Act and other legal measures to enhance the efforts for preventing child abuse [93].
Urgent measures for COVID-19 consequences and risk • Employment adjustment subsidy [94].
• Subsidy Program for Sustaining Businesses Starts [95].
• Employment adjustment subsidy [94].
• Subsidy Program for Sustaining Businesses Starts [95].
• Employment adjustment subsidy [94].
• Subsidy Program for Sustaining Businesses Starts [95].
• Employment adjustment subsidy [94].
• Flexibility in changing Visa status [96].
• Action plan to strengthen child abuse monitoring [97].
Remaining challenges to address COVID-19 consequences and risks • Supporting individuals not covered by any measures [98].
• Reducing barriers to the application of existing and urgent measures [99].
• Preventing transmission during work [100].
• Supporting individuals not covered by any measures [98].
• Reducing barriers to the application of existing and urgent measures [99].
• Preventing transmission during work [100].
• Supporting individuals not covered by any measures [98].
• Reducing barriers to the application of existing and urgent measures [99].
• Preventing transmission during work [100].
• Mitigating the isolation of evacuees, particularly the elderly [81].
• Supporting individuals not covered by any measures [98].
• Reducing barriers to the application of existing and urgent measures [99].
• Preventing transmission during work [100].
• Understanding the situation and responding to the needs of undocumented foreigners
• Enhancing cooperation among schools, local governments, and child guidance centers during school closure [85].
• Developing alternative approaches to activities of existing public institutions to meet the needs of children and adolescents [77].