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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression analysis of high-risk fertility behavior among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia, 2016 (n = 11,022)

From: Determinants of high-risk fertility behavior among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia using the recent Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey: a multilevel analysis

Variables Category Model (I) AOR (95% CI) without factor Model (II) AOR (95% CI) individual-level factor Model (III) AOR (95% CI) community-level factor Model (IV) AOR (95% CI) individual + community-level factor
Sex of child Male   Ref   Ref
Female   0.94 (0.85, 1.03)   0.93 (0.85, 1.02)
Religion Orthodox   Ref   Ref
Muslim   1.35 (1.19, 1.52)   1.10 (0.93, 1.29)
Protestant   1.07 (0.93, 1.24)   1.08 (0.89, 1.30)
Others   1.14 (0.82, 1.59)   1.15 (0.82, 1.62)
Educational status of mother Unable to read and write   Ref   Ref
Primary education   0.69 (0.62, 0.78)   0.71 (0.63, 0.80)*
Secondary education   0.69 (0.57, 0.84)   0.73 (0.60, 0.89)*
Higher education   0.76 (0.59, 0.99)   0.82 (0.63, 1.07)
Occupational status women (the mother) Working   Ref   Ref
Not working   0.99 (0.89, 1.09)   0.96 (0.87, 1.06)
Wealth index Poor   Ref   Ref
Middle   0.90 (0.78, 1.04)   0.95 (0.82, 1.10)
Rich   0.91 (0.80, 1.04)   0.98 (0.85, 1.13)
Media exposure Has media exposure   Ref   Ref
No media exposure   0.81 (0.69, 0.96)   0.83(0.70,1.004)
Contraceptive use Yes   Ref   Ref
No   1.31 (1.17, 1.47)   1.25 (1.12, 1.40)*
Wanted pregnancy Yes   Ref   Ref
No   1.34 (1.18, 1.53)   1.40 (1.23, 1.59)*
Had ANC Yes   Ref   Ref
No   1.19 (1.05, 1.34)   1.19 (1.05, 1.35)*
Stillbirth No   Ref   Ref
Yes   1.08 (0.88, 1.28)   1.07 (0.90, 1.27)
Delivery place Institution   Ref   Ref
Home   0.99 (0.88, 1.12)   0.97 (0.85, 1.11)
Residence Urban    Ref Ref
Rural    1.65 (1.43, 1.90) 1.26 (1.04, 1.51)*
Region Addis    Ref Ref
Afar    1.56 (1.16, 2.10) 1.19 (0.86, 1.63)
Amhara    0.81 (0.61,1.08) 0.72 (0.53, 0.96)*
Oromia    1.18 (0.89, 1.57) 2.289 0.98 (0.73, 1.31)
Somalia    2.29 (1.73, 3.05) 1.70 (1.24, 2.32)*
Benishangul Gumuz    1.12 (0.83, 1.52) 0.99 (0.73, 1.35)
SNNP    1.05 (0.79, 1.39) 0.93 (0.69, 1.26)
Gambela    0.92 (0.69, 1.24) 0.79 (0.57, 1.09)
Harari    1.08 (0.80, 1.47) 0.97 (0.71, 1.32)
Tigray    1.07 (0.811, 1.43) 1.03 (0.77, 1.39)
Dire Dawa    1.43 (1.05, 1.94) 1.22 (0.88, 1.68)
Random effects (effects of variation), i.e, measure of variation for high-risk fertility behavior
 Community level variance(SE) 0.188 (0.032) 0.062 (0.024) 0.064 (0.023) 0.039 (0.024)
p value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Deviance 11,372 11,146 11,202 11,092
 ICC% 5.4 1.8 1.91 1.18
 PCV% Reference 67.03 65.97 79.26
 MOR 1.50 1.26 1.27 1.20
  1. Ref reference category
  2. *p value less than 0.05