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Table 2 Efficacy, toxicity, and phytochemical studies on medicinal plants used for treatment of TB in East Africa

From: Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: a systematic review

Plant Extraction method (solvent) MIC (μg/ml) on H37Rv strain MIC (μg/ml) on TMC-331 strain Toxicity of crude extracts (μg/ml) Class of compounds Author(s)
Acacia ataxacantha Maceration (methanol) Not active Not tested IC50 = 90.39 Phenols, terpenoids [28]
Acacia horrida Soxhlet (methanol) < 1000 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, terpenoids [29]
Acacia senegal Soxhlet (methanol) < 1000 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids [29]
Acokanthera friesiorum Soxhlet (methanol) < 1000 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Cardiac glycosides, Tannins, flavonoids [29]
Albizia anthelmitica Soxhlet (methanol) < 1000 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids [29]
Aspilia pluriseta Maceration (methanol) Active at 1 g/ml (MIC not determined) Not tested IC50 = 24.51 Phenol, terpenoids, flavonoids [28]
Bidens pilosa Maceration (ethanol) 100 Not tested Not tested Not tested [37]
Callistemon citrinus Maceration (methanol, chloroform) 325 (methanol), 48 (chloroform) (Iso = 4.0; R = 2.0) 78 (methanol), 158 (chloroform), Iso = 4.0 Not tested Flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids, saponins [15]
Cissampelos pareira Maceration (methanol) Active at 1 g/ml (MIC not determined) Not tested IC50 = 179 Anthraquinones, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids [28]
Commiphora edulis Maceration (ethyl acetate, DCM, water) 6250 (Ethyl acetate), 780 (methanol), Not active (water) Not tested IC50 = 393 (DCM), 1734 (ethyl acetate) Flavonoids, terpenoids [26]
Commiphora ellenbeckii Maceration (ethyl acetate, methanol, water) 12500 (Ethyl acetate), 3125 (methanol), 780 (water), 15 (rif) Not tested IC50 = 608 (methanol), 1509 (water) Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids [26]
Commiphora mildbraedii Maceration (ethyl acetate, methanol, water) 6250–9250 (Ethyl acetate), 390–780 (methanol), not active (water), 15 (Rif) Not tested IC50 = 339 (ethyl acetate), 452 (methanol) Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids [26]
Cordia sinensis Soxhlet (methanol) < 500 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins [29]
Cryptolepsis sanguinolenta Methanol chloroform 1170 (methanol) (Iso = 0.25; R = 0.25) 1580 (methanol) (Iso = 0.25) LD50 = 758 mg/kg Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids [84]
Dalbergia melanoxylon Maceration (methanol) Not active Not tested IC50 = 120.04 Phenols, terpenoids [28]
Dichrostachys cinerea Maceration (methanol) Active at 1 g/ml, (MIC not determined) Not tested IC50 = 201.22 Phenols, terpenoids [28]
Entadda abyssinica Maceration (methanol) 500 (Iso = 0.25) Not tested Not tested Flavonoid, alkaloids, saponins, tannins [12, 29]
Erythrina abyssinica Maceration (methanol) 390 (Rif = 0.25; Iso = 0.25) 2350 (Iso = 9.38) LD50 = 776.2 mg/kg Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins [44]
Euphorbia ingens Maceration (methanol) Active at 1 g/ml (MIC not determined) Not tested IC50 = 105.55 Phenols, terpenoids [28]
Euphorbia scarlatica Soxhlet (methanol) < 500 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids [29]
Gnidia buchananii Maceration (methanol) Active at 1 g/ml (MIC not determined) Not tested IC50 = 76.24 Phenols, terpenoids, [28]
Indigofera lupatana Maceration (methanol) Not active Not tested IC50 = 60.37 Phenols, terpenoids [28]
Khaya senegalensis Maceration (ethyl acetate, chloroform) 6.25 Not tested IC50 = 1000 Not tested [52]
Lantana camara Maceration (methanol, chloroform) 20 (Rif = 1) 15 (Iso = 0.25) LD50 > 500 mg/kg Not reported [53]
Lonchocarpus eriocalyx Maceration (methanol) Not active Not tested IC50 = 201.87 Terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids [28]
Loranthus acaciae Soxhlet (methanol) < 1000 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids [29]
Mangifera indica Methanol 3130 (methanol) (Iso = 0.25; R = 0.25) 590 (methanol) (Iso = 0.25) Not tested Phenols, terpenoids [16]
Pentos longiflora Maceration (ethanol) 1000 Not tested Not tested Not tested [37]
Piptadenistrum africana Maceration (chloroform) 395 (chloroform) 395 (chloroform) Not tested Flavonoids, tannins [15]
Plumbago dawei Soxhlet (methanol) < 1000 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Cardiac glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids [29]
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Maceration (chloroform) 6.25 Not tested IC50 = 100 Not tested [52]
Salvadora persica Soxhlet (methanol) < 500 (Iso < 500) Not tested Not tested Alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids [29]
Solanum incanum Methanol chloroform Not active Not active Not tested Not reported [16]
Tetradenia riparia Maceration (ethanol) 500 Not tested Not tested Not tested [37]
Warburgia ugandensis Methanol chloroform 4690 (methanol), 2350 (chloroform) (Iso = 0.25; R = 0.25) 2350 (methanol), 590 (chloroform) (Iso = 0.25) Not tested Flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids [85, 86]
Zanthoxylum leprieurii Methanol 47.5 (Iso = 4.0; R = 2.0) 75.3 (Iso = 4.0) Not tested Alkaloids [5]
  1. IC50 median cytotoxic concentration, LD50 median lethal dose, Iso isoniazid, Rif rifampicin, H37Rv pan sensitive Mtb strain, TMC331 rifampicin-resistant Mtb strain, MIC minimum inhibitory concentration. Extracts in [26] were tested against Mycobacteria smegmatis