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Table 1 Medicinal plants used in treatment of symptoms of TB in East Africa

From: Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: a systematic review

Botanical name Family Local Names Habit Part used Country Author (s)
Acacia ataxacantha DC Fabaceae Not reported Tree Roots Kenya [28]
Acacia hockii De Wild. Fabaceae Kasana (Luganda), Kashiono Tree Leaves, Stem bark Uganda [7, 10]
Acacia horrida (L.) Fabaceae Lerai (Samburu) Tree Stem bark Kenya [29]
Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Fabaceae Burikoti Tree Stem bark Uganda [10]
Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile Fabaceae Sunut Tree Fruit South Sudan [30]
Acacia polyacantha Willd. Fabaceae Egirigirioi Tree Stem bark Uganda [10]
Acacia senegal Fabaceae Lderekesi (Samburu) Tree Stem bark Kenya [29]
Acacia spectabilis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. Fabaceae Gasiya (Luganda) Tree Leaves Uganda [7]
Acanthus pubescens (Thomson ex Oliv.) Engl. Acanthaceae Matovu, Itojo Herb Roots Uganda, Kenya [10, 12]
Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae Muhurura Herb Flower Uganda [10]
Achyrospermum carvalhoi Gürke Lamiaceae Kanyamafundo Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Acokanthera friesiorum Apocynaceae Chipilikwa (Samburu) Tree Leaves Kenya [29]
Adenia gummifera Passifloraceae Chepnyalildet (Nandi) Climber Roots Kenya [31]
Adhatoda engleriana Lindau C.B. Clarke Acanthaceae Iringoringo (Chagga) Herb Roots Tanzania [32]
Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Namirembe (Luganda) Herb Whole plant Uganda [7]
Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harms Cornaceae Omusiisa (Luganda) Herb Stem bark Uganda [7]
Albizia anthelmitica Fabaceaa Lamurtana (Samburu) Tree Stem bark Kenya [29]
Albizia coriaria Welw. Ex Oliv Fabaceae Mugavu (Luganda), Etek (Lango), Musita (Lusoga), Omusesa (Runyangkore), Omubele (Wanga) Tree Stem bark Uganda, Kenya [7,8,9,10, 12, 33]
Albizia species Fabaceae Ennongo (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Albizia versicola Fabaceae Not reported Tree Leaves Tanzania, Kenya [12]
Albizia zygia (DC.) Macbr. Fabaceae Ekegonchori (Kuria) Tree Roots Kenya [12]
Allium sativum L. Alliaceae Kitungu saumu (Luo), Garlic (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda, Kenya [10, 12]
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Asphodelaceae Kigaji (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Aloe secundiflora Engl. Aloaceae Sukuroi (Samburu), Osukuroi (Masai), Kiluma (Kamba) Herb Leaves Kenya [12, 34]
Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Kidodo (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [10]
Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr. Combretaceae Sahab Tree Stem bark South Sudan [30, 35]
Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. Moraceae Kirundu (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Asparagus africanus Lam. Asparagaceae Mukira gwango (Luganda) Climber Stem bark Uganda [10]
Aspilia africana (Pers.) C.D. Adams Asteraceae Makaayi (Luganda) Emaruoit Herb Root bark, Leaves Uganda [7, 10]
Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf. Asteraceae Rirangera Herb Roots Kenya [28]
Azadirachta indica L. Meliaceae Muarubaini (Kamba) Tree Seeds Kenya [12]
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae Neem tree (Luganda) Tree Leaves, stem bark Uganda [7, 10]
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile Zygophyllaceae Olngosua (Maasai), Ekorete Shrub Stem bark Tanzania, Kenya; Uganda [10, 12]
Bersama abyssinica Fres. Melianthaceae Kipsigriet (Sabaot), Kibuimetiet (Nandi) Tree Leaves Kenya [36]
Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae Sere, Labika (Luganda), Kalala (Lusoga), ononot (Lango) Herb Flowers, Leaves Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi [7, 10, 37, 38]
Blighia unijugata Baker Sapindaceae Enkuza nyana (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. Capparaceae Kursan; Mukheit Shrub Not reported South Sudan [35]
Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. Euphorbiaceae Katazamitti (Luganda), Umugimbu, Tree Stem bark, Root Uganda, Burundi [7, 38]
Brillantaisia owariensis P. Beauv. Acanthaceae Icuga Herb Leaves Uganda [10]
Cadaba farinosa Forssk Capparaceae Lumuriai (Samburu), Akado marateng (Luo) Shrub Not reported Kenya [39]
Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels Myrtaceae Mwabalabutonya (Luganda) Shrub Leaves, Stem bark Uganda [7, 9, 10]
Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. Burseraceae Muwafu (Luganda), Mubafu (Lusoga, Rutoro) Tree Stem bark, stem, roots Uganda, Kenya [7, 9, 12]
Canephora pierre ex A. Froehner Rubiaceae Emwanyi (Luganda) Shrub Stem bark Uganda [7]
Capparis erythrocarpos Isert Capparaceae Muzingani omwelu, Kitunku ekitono Shrub Roots Uganda [10]
Capparis tomentosa Lam. Capparaceae Muzingani omwelu, Kitunku ekitono Shrub Roots Uganda [10]
Carica papaya L. Caricaceae Amapapali, Paapali essajja (Luganda), Mupapali omusaiza (Lusoga), Apapalu (Lango) Shrub Leaves, Stem Uganda [7, 9, 10]
Carissa edulis (Forsk.) Vahl Apocynaceae Muyonza, Ekamuriei (Ateso) Shrub Roots Uganda [10]
Cassine buchananii Loes. Celastraceae Mbaluka (Luganda) Tree Stem bark, Leaves Uganda [8]
Catha edulis Forsk. Celastraceae Chemgangoi (Sabaot) Shrub Stem bark Kenya [36]
Celosia trigyna L. Amaranthaceae Kakubaggiri (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Chaetacme aristata Planch. Ulmaceae Embutami (Luganda) Tree Leaves Uganda [7]
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Lauraceae Mudalasini (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Cissampelos pereira L. Menispermaceae Karigi munana Liana Roots Kenya [28]
Cissus quinquangularis L. Vitaceae Sukurtuti Herb Roots Kenya [12, 34]
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck Rutaceae Nimawa Tree Fruit Uganda [9]
Combretum molle R.Br. ex. G. Don. Combretaceae Ndagi, Loro (Lango) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7, 8, 10]
Commiphora species Burseraceae Oltemuai (Sabaot) Shrub Not reported Kenya [40]
Commiphora edulis (Klotzsch) Burseraceae Not reported Shrub Stem bark, Leaves Kenya [12, 26]
Commiphora ellenbeckii Engl. Burseraceae Not reported Shrub Stem bark, Leaves Kenya [26]
Commiphora mildbraedii Engl. Burseraceae Not reported Shrub Stem bark, Root bark Kenya [26]
Cordia africana Lam Boraginaceae Not reported Tree Roots Tanzania, Kenya [12]
Crassocephalum vitellinum Apiaceae Akayungubira Herb Leaves Burundi [38]
Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G.Don) Benth. Rubiaceae Not reported Tree Roots Tanzania, Kenya [12]
Croton dichogamus Pax. Euphorbiaceae Oloiborrbenek (Massai) Shrub Roots Tanzania, Kenya [12]
Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Del Euphorbiaceae Omutswitswi (Wanga), Mukinduri (Kikuyu) Tree Leaves, Roots Kenya [33]
Croton sylvaticus Euphorbiaceae Not reported Tree Roots Tanzania [41]
Croton zambesicus Euphorbiaceae Um-Gilagla Tree Fruit South Sudan [42, 43]
Cryptolepis sanguinolenta Apocynaceae Kafulu (Luganda) Shrub Roots Kenya, Uganda [12, 44]
Cymbopogon citratus D.C. ex Stapf Poaceae Kisubi (Luganda), Akisube (Ateso), Lum cai (Lango) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Cyperus latifolius Poir. Cyperasaceae Ekekeriaut Herb Roots Uganda [10]
Cyperus rotundus L. Subsp. rotundus Cyperasaceae Ekekeriaut Herb Roots Uganda [10]
Cyphostemma adenocaule Vitaceae Lordo (Samburu) Herb Not reported Kenya [34]
Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. Fabaceae Not reported Tree Stem bark Kenya [28]
Datura stramonium Solanaceae Not reported Herb Leaves Rwanda [45]
Desmodium salicifolium (Poir.) D.C. Fabaceae Enkolimbo (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Desmodium repandum (Vahl) DC. Papilionaceae Ituza Herb Leaves Uganda [10]
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn Fabaceae Chinjiri (Digo) Tree Roots Kenya [28]
Dodonaea angustifolia L. f. Sapindaceae Musambya (Luganda) Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Dracaena steudneri Engl. Asparagaceae Kajjolyenjovu (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda, Kenya [7, 9, 10, 12]
Dychrostachys glomerata (DG) (Forssk.) Fabaceae Not reported Tree Leaves, Roots Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania [10, 12, 29]
Embelia schimperi Vatke Myrsinaceae Sachuonet (Ogiek) Tree Stem bark Kenya [46]
Entada abbysinica A. Rich. Fabaceae Laginaria (Luo) Mwolola (Luganda) Shrub Roots, Stem bark, Leaves Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania [7, 10, 12, 29]
Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. Fabaceae Ejjirikiti (Luganda), Kiko Omoko (Rutoro), Oluo (Lugbara), Owila kot (Lango), Muyirikiti (Lusoga), Omotembe (Kisii)Muhuti (Kikuyu), Umurinzi Tree Stem bark, leaves Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi [7,8,9,10, 12, 38, 45, 47]
Eucalyptus species Myrtaceae Kalintusi (Luganda) Tree Leaves, Stem bark Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda [7,8,9,10, 12, 47, 48]
Euclea divinorum Hiern Ebenaceae Emus, Kasalagala/Muda (Lusoga) Shrub Roots Uganda [10]
Euphorbia ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss. Euphorbiaceae Not reported Tree Roots Kenya [28]
Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele Euphorbiaceae Kazagamira (Luganda) Tree Leaves Uganda [7]
Faidherbia albida (Del.) Chevi. Fabaceae Haraz Tree Leaves South Sudan [42]
Ficus glumosa Delile Moraceae Muwo (Luganda) Shrub Stem bark Uganda [7]
Ficus natalensis Hochst. Moraceae Omutuba (Luganda), Mugaire (Lusoga) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Ficus platyphylla Delile Moraceae Mudodwe Shrub Stem bark Uganda [10]
Ficus saussureana Moraceae Omuwo (Luganda) Shrub Stem bark Uganda [8]
Fleurya aestuans (L.) Gaudich. ex Miq. Urticaceae Munyango (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Garcinia buchananii Baker Clusiaceae Musaali (Luganda) Tree Stem bark, Root bark Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania [7, 10, 12]
Gnaphalium purpureum L. Asteraceae Omuya (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Gnidia buchananii Gilg Thymelaeaceae Not reported Herb Roots Kenya [49]
Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey. Apocynaceae Gashaho Herb Leaves Uganda [10]
Gutenbergia cordifolia Benth. ex Oliv. Asteraceae Ekoutapem Herb Roots, Leaves Uganda [10]
Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. Simaroubaceae Mutagataga (Meru), Osiro (Luo), Orongoriwe (Kuria), Lushaike Shrub Stem bark Uganda, Kenya [10, 50, 51]
Harungana madagascariensis Lam.ex Pior Hypericaceae Mukabiiransiko (Luganda) Tree Stem bark, Leaves Uganda [8]
Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Asteraceae Lweza (luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [10]
Heterotis canescens Melastomataceae Umusomaw’a-bungere, Herb Leaves Burundi [38]
Hibiscus fuscus Garcke Malvaceae Lusaala (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Hoslundia opposita Vahl Lamiaceae Cheroronit, Cherungut (Nandi), Nfodo (Lusoga) Shrub Leaves Uganda, Kenya [10, 31]
Hypericum revolutum Vahl Clusiaceae Mushungwa Tree Leaves Uganda [10]
Hypoestes verticillaris (L.f.) Sol. Acanthaceae Narubat (Ogiek) Herb Roots Kenya [46]
Iboza multiflora (Benth.) E. A. Bruce Lamiaceae Iseja Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Iboza riparia (Hochst.) N. E. Br. Lamiaceae Muravumba Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Indigofera emarginella Steud. ex A. Rich. Fabaceae Olutunga nsonzi (Luganda) Shrub Leaves, Stem bark Uganda [7]
Indigofera lupatana Baker F Fabaceae Not reported Shrub Roots Kenya [28]
Kalanchoe glaucescens Planch. ex Benth Crassulaceae Ekiyondo ekyeru (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7, 9]
Kalanchoe integra Crassulaceae Not reported Shrub Leaves Rwanda [48]
Khaya senegalensis Meliaceae Not reported Tree Leaves, Stem bark South Sudan [52]
Lagenaria sphaerica (Sond.) Naudin Cucurbitaceae Mutanga Herb Leaves Uganda [10]
Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae Kayukiyuki (Luganda), Owinybilo (Lango), Kanpanga (Ateso) Shrub Leaves Uganda [7, 10, 53]
Lantana trifolia Verbenaceae Not reported Shrub Leaves Rwanda [48]
Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br. Lamiaceae Susuni Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Leucas calostachys Oliv. Lamiaceae Kakuba musulo (Luganda) Shrub Leaves, Whole plant Uganda [8]
Lippia grandifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich Verbenaceae Olugumaguma (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Lonchocarpus eriocalyx Harms Fabaceae Not reported Tree Stem bark Kenya [11, 28]
Maesa lanceolata Forssk. Myrsinaceae Muhanga Tree Roots Uganda [10]
Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Muyembe (Luganda), Aeme (Lango) Tree Stem bark Uganda, Kenya [7, 9, 10, 12, 47]
Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Celastraceae Naligwalimu (Luganda), Muwaiswa, Eterka, Itereka (Lango) Shrub Root bark, Leaves Uganda [7, 10]
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Asteraceae Kabilili akatono (Luganda) Shrub Roots Uganda [10]
Microgramma lycopodiodes (L.) Copel Polypodiaceae Kukumba (Luganda) Herb Roots, Leaves Uganda [8]
Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg Moraceae Muvule (Luganda) Tree Leaves Uganda [7]
Momordica foetida Schumach. Cucurbitaceae Bombo (Luganda), Luiwula/Mwishwa Herb Leaves Uganda, Rwanda [7, 10, 45]
Momordica rostrata A. Zimm. Cucurbitaceae Chepkologolio (Ogiek) Herb Roots Kenya [46]
Morella kandtiana (Engl.) Verdc. & Polhill Myricaceae Mukikimbo (Luganda) Herb Roots, Leaves, Whole plant Uganda [8]
Morinda lucida Benth. Rubiaceae Kabaja nsayi (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Moringa oleifera Lam. Moringaceae Moringa (Luganda) Tree Fruit, Stem Uganda [7, 10]
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Papilionaceae Lugenyu (Luganda) Vine Leaves Uganda [10]
Myrica kandtiana Engl. Myricaceae Enkikimbo(Luganda) Tree Fruit, Leaves, Stem bark, Root bark Uganda [7]
Myrsine africana L. Myrsinaceae Seketeti (Samburu) Shrub Not reported Kenya [34]
Nauclea latifolia Sm Rubiaceae Karmadoda Tree Fruit South Sudan [54]
Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae Umusurasura Herb Leaves Burundi [38]
Ocimum suave Willd. Lamiaceae Muhumuzanganda (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [10]
Olea capensis L. Oleaceae Pekeriondet (Sabaot) Tree Stem bark Kenya [36]
Olinia rochetiana Penaeaceae Kaptolongit (Sabaot) Tree Roots Kenya [36]
Ormocarpum trichocarpum (Taub.) Harms Papilionaceae Eseperuae Tree Roots Uganda [10]
Pappea capensis (Spreng) Eckl. & Zeyh. Sapindaceae Muba (Kikuyu), Enkorrirri, Oltimigomi (Maasai) Shrub Stem bark, Root bark Kenya [55, 56]
Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. Chrysobalanaceae Umunazi Tree Stem bark, roots Burundi [38]
Pavetta crassipes K. Schum. Rubiaceae Not reported Shrub Roots Tanzania, Kenya [12]
Pentas longiflora Oliv. Rubiaceae lsagara Herb Roots Rwanda [37]
Persea americana Mill. Lauraceae Ovacado (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7, 9]
Phaseolus lunatus L. Fabaceae Kayindiyindi (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Fabaceae Bijanjaro (Luganda) Herb Husks Uganda [7]
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. Phyllanthaceae Mutulika (Luganda) Shrub Leaves Uganda [7]
Piliostigma thonningii Fabaceae Chebutiandet (Sabaot) Tree Leaves Kenya [36]
Piptadenistrum africana Fabaceae Mpewere (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7, 9, 10]
Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Lamiaceae Ekibankulata (Luganda), Ebiriri omutano (Ateso) Shrub Leaves Uganda [7, 10]
Plectranthus hadiensis Lamiaceae Kibwankulanta (Luganda) Shrub Whole plant, Leaves Uganda [8]
Plumbago dawei Plumbaginaceae Lkiarianthus (Samburu) Herb Stem bark Kenya [29]
Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae Musajjabanda (Luganda), Mukya (Kamba) Herb Leaves Uganda, Kenya [7, 34, 57]
Podocarpus usambarensis Pilg. Podocarpaceae Kamusenene (Luganda) Tree Leaves Uganda [7]
Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman Rosaceae Ntaseesa, Ngwabuzito (Luganda, Rutoro),Sirumandu (Lugisu) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Pseudospondia microcarpa (A. Rich.) Engl. Anacardiaceae Muziru (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Mpera (Chagga) Tree Fruit, Leaves, Stem bark, Root bark Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania [7, 12]
Pycnostachys ericirosenii R.E.Fr. Lamiaceae Musindikwa (Luganda) Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Rhamnus prinoides L’Herit. Rhamnaceae Munanira (Luganda) Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild. & R.B.D. Drumm. Vitaceae Mumara (Luganda) Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Rhus natalensis Bernh. ex Krauss Anacardiaceae Lmisigiyoi, Muthigiu (Kikuyu) Tree Roots, Leaves Kenya [51]
Rhus vulgaris Meikle Anacardiaceae Kakwansokwanso (Luganda) Herb Stem bark, Leaves Uganda [7]
Ribes uva-crispa L. Grossulariaceae Entuntunu (Luganda) Shrub Leaves Uganda [7]
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae Not reported Herb Leaves South Sudan [52]
Rubia cordifolia L. Rubiaceae Kasalabakesi (Luganda) Urumurwa (Kuria) Herb Leaves, Whole plant Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania [7, 9, 10, 12, 16]
Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. Polygonaceae Not reported Herb Leaves Rwanda [48]
Sapium ellipticum (Hochst.) Pax Euphorbiaceae Omusasa (Luganda) Shrub Stem bark Uganda [7]
Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen. Polygalaceae Mukondwa, Awee ilila (Lango), Mukondwa (Lusoga), Eliloi (Ateso) Tree Roots Uganda [8, 10]
Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby Fabaceae Gasiya seed Tree Stem bark Uganda [10]
Sesamum calycinum Pedaliaceae Lutungotungo (Luganda) Herb Leaves, Whole plant Uganda [8]
Solanum aculeastrum Dunal Solanaceae Mutura (Kikuyu), Ekitengo (Luganda) Shrub Fruit, Roots, Leaves Uganda, Kenya [7, 8, 12]
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae Entengotengo Ennene (Luganda), Ocokocok (Lango), Ntonka (Lusoga), Mutongu (Kamba),Entulelei (Maasai) Shrub Fruit Uganda, Kenya [7, 12]
Solanum mauense Bitter Solanaceae Ng’onyoyiek (Ogiek) Shrub Seeds Kenya [46]
Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. Bignoniaceae Kifabakazi (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7]
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Myrtaceae Jambula (Luganda) Tree Stem bark Uganda [7, 9]
Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae Mukoge (Luganda), Cwao (Lango) Tree Leaves Uganda [10]
Teclea nobilis Del. Rutaceae Luzo Shrub Leaves Uganda [10]
Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd Lamiaceae Ekyewamala (Luganda) Herb Leaves Uganda, Rwanda [7, 37]
Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels Combretaceae Darout Tree Stem bark South Sudan [30]
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Asteraceae Ekimyula, Okelokelo (Lango) Shrub Stem bark Uganda [7]
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam Rutaceae Simborichet (Sabaot), Mururue (Kikuyu), Oleparmunyo (Maasai), Kawule (Luganda) Shrub Roots, Leaves Uganda, Kenya [7, 8, 10, 36]
Tragia brevipes Pax Euphorbiaceae Nakepian Climber Roots Uganda [10]
Tragia subsessilis Pax Euphorbiaceae Totoananyia Herb Roots Uganda [10]
Trichilia dregeana Sond. Meliaceae Sekoba (Luganda) Tree Stem bark, Uganda [7]
Triumfetta flavescens Hochst. ex A. Rich. Malvaceae Luwugula (Luganda) Shrub Stem Uganda [7]
Vachellia drepanolobium (Harms ex Sjostedt) P.J.H. Huter Fabaceae Oluai (Maasai) Tree Stem bark, Root bark Kenya [55]
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Asteraceae Kayayana, Lukohe (Luganda), Yat Kwong (Lango) Herb Leaves Uganda [7]
Vernonia amygdalina Del. Asteraceae Mululuza (Luganda) Lubilili Shrub Leaves Uganda [7, 10]
Warburgia ugandensis Sprague Canellaceae Abaki, Sokoni (Samburu), Muthiga (Kikuyu) Tree Stem bark Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania [7,8,9,10, 12, 16, 57,58,59]
Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Rutaceae Ntale ya ddungu (Luganda), Eusuk (Ateso), Agodaman (Lango), Oloisuki (Maasai), Rukuts (Karimojong), Outiku (Lugbara) Tree Stem bark Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania [5, 8,9,10, 12]
Zanthoxylum gillettii (De Wild.) P.G. Waterman Rutaceae Sagawatiet, Shihumba/Shikuma Tree Stem bark Kenya [31]
Zanthoxylum leprieurii Rutaceae Not reported Tree Stem bark Uganda [5]
Zehneria scabra Cucurbitaceae Umushishiro, Herb Leaves Burundi [38]
Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae Tangawizi (Luo), Ntangawuzi (Luganda) Herb Stem Uganda, Kenya [7, 9, 10, 12]
  1. Languages: Ateso, Lango, Luganda, Lugbara, Lugisu, Lusoga, Karimojong, and Rutoro (Uganda); Digo, Kamba, Kikuyu, Kisii, Kuria, Luo, Maasai, Meru, Nandi, Ogiek ,Sabaot, Samburu, and Wanga (Kenya); and Chagga (Tanzania). Local names with language(s) not indicated were not specified by the authors