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Table 3 Risk factors for mortality among infants and children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

From: Risk factors for mortality among Tanzanian infants and children

 n/N (%)Unadjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)P valueAdjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)P value
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years)
  <2453/1167 (4.5%)Referent Referent 
  24–29145/1986 (7.3%)1.61 (1.17–2.20)0.0031.03 (0.74–1.43)0.88
  ≥3099/1518 (6.5%)1.43 (1.03–2.00)0.030.83 (0.58–1.18)0.30
Middle upper arm circumference in centimeters
 ≥23258/4196 (6.2%)Referent Referent 
 <2345/478 (9.4%)1.58 (1.15–2.17)0.0050.98 (0.71–1.35)0.90
Married or cohabitating with partner
 Yes257/4173 (6.2%)0.74 (0.53–1.02)0.060.95 (0.67–1.35)0.78
 No43/527 (8.2%)Referent Referent 
Prior pregnancies
 067/1268 (5.3%)Referent   
 1–4222/3307 (6.7%)1.25 (0.95–1.64)0.11  
 ≥511/133 (8.3%)1.57 (0.83–2.97)0.17  
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Formal education in years
  ≥852/1120 (4.6%)0.65 (0.36–1.16)0.15  
  1–7235/3.400 (6.9%)0.97 (0.56–165)0.90  
  None14/193 (7.3%)Referent   
 Employment
  Housewife without income208/2,950 (7.1%)Referent Referent 
  Housewife with income22/545 (4.0%)0.56 (0.36–0.87)0.0010.70 (0.45–1.09)0.11
  Other67/1,139 (5.9%)0.84 (0.64–1.10)0.210.95 (0.71–1.27)0.72
 Household wealth index >75 percentile
  No241/3540 (6.8)Referent Referent 
  Yes58 (1106 (5.0)0.73 (0.55–0.97)0.0030.77 (0.58–1.04_)0.09
 Per person daily food expenditure
  ≥1000 Tanzanian shillings48/1,749 (2.7%)Referent   
  <1000 Tanzanian shillings238/2742 (8.7%)3.34 (2.45–4.56)<0.0010.89 (0.59–1.35)0.59
Infant characteristics
 Sex
  Female136/2263 (6.0%)Referent   
  Male171/2484 (6.9%)1.15 (0.92–1.44)0.22  
Preterm, <37 weeks gestation
  No244/3,874 (6.3%)Referent Referent 
 Yes56/640 (8.8%)1.44 (1.08–1.92)0.011.16 (0.85–1.58)0.35
Low birth weight, <2500 g
 No246/4382 (5.6%)Referent   
 Yes36/242 (14.9%)2.91 (2.05–4.12)<0.0011.74 (1.20–2.53)0.004
Apgar score at 5 min
 8–10257/4182 (6.2%)Referent Referent 
 ≤716/128 (12.5%)2.14 (1.29–3.54)0.0032.08 (1.24–3.49)0.006
HIV status
 Unexposed45/2360 (1.9%)Referent Referent 
 Exposed but uninfected119/2005 (5.9%)3.30 (2.35–4.68)<0.0013.95 (2.49–6.24)<0.001
 Infected133/355 (37.5%)26.56 (18.93–37.28)<0.00132.19 (20.26–51.16)<0.001
Exclusive breastfeeding duration
 Never55/1034 (6.5%)Referent   
 <3 months109/1832 (6.3%)1.14 (0.82–1.58)0.021.15 (0.82–1.61)0.43
 ≥3 months140/1840 (7.6%)1.43 (1.05,1.96)0.540.75 (0.54–1.05)0.09