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Table 1 Maternal, socioeconomic, and infant characteristics of two cohorts in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

From: Risk factors for mortality among Tanzanian infants and children

 Total (n = 4787)Children of HIV-positive mothers (n = 2387)Children of HIV-negative mothers (n = 2400)
Maternal characteristics
 Age in years (mean ± SD)27.3 ± 5.128.2 ± 4.926.4 ± 5.0
 Height in centimeters (mean ± SD)155.8 ± 6.1155.2 ± 6.0156.5 ± 6.2
 Weight in kilograms (mean ± SD)60.6 ± 11.459.0 ± 10.962.2 ± 11.7
 Middle upper arm circumference in centimeters (mean ± SD)26.4 ± 3.225.9 ± 3.227.0 ± 3.1
Married or cohabitating with partner
 Yes4206 (88.7%)2051 (86.9%)2155 (90.6%)
 No534 (11.3%)310 (13.1)224 (9.4)
 Prior pregnancies (mean ± SD)1.4 ± 1.31.5 ± 1.31.3 ± 1.4
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Formal education in years
 None194 (4.1%)158 (6.7%)36 (1.5%)
 1–73431 (72.2%)1700 (71.9%)1731 (72.5%)
 ≥81128 (23.7%)507 (21.4%)621 (26.0%)
 Employment
  Housewife with income550 (22.9%)200 (8.7%)350 (14.7%)
  Housewife without income2973 (62.1%)1528 (66.5%)1445 (60.8%)
  Other11151 (12.7%)570 (24.8%)581 (24.5%)
Per person daily food expenditure
 <1000 Tanzanian shillings
   
  Yes2755 (60.8%)2101 (93.7%)654 (28.6%)
  No1774 (39.2%)141 (6.3%)1633 (71.4%)
Household wealth index >75 percentile2
 Yes1175 (24.8%)577 (24.4)598 (25.1%)
 No3569 (75.2)1784 (75.6%)1785 (74.9%)
Infant and child characteristics
 Infant sex
 Male2505 (52.3%)1289 (54.0%)1216 (50.6%)
 Female2282 (47.7%)1098 (46.0%)1184 (49.3%)
Preterm, <37 weeks gestation
 Yes647 (14.2%)357 (15.2%)290 (12.2%)
 No3905 (85.8%)1995 (84.8%)1910 (86.8%)
Low birth weight, <2500 g
 Yes243 (5.2%)161 (7.0%)82 (3.5%)
 No4421 (94.8%)2128 (93.0%)2293 (96.5%)
Apgar ≤7 at 5 min after birth
 Yes128 (2.9%)87 (4.1%)41 (1.9%)
 No4220 (97.1%)2049 (95.9%)2171 (98.1%)
HIV status
 HIV-infected355 (7.5%)355 (15.0%)0 (0.0%)
 HIV-exposed but uninfected2005 (42.1%)2005 (85.0%)0 (0.0%)
 HIV-unexposed2400 (50.4%)0 (0.0%)2400 (100%)
 Any breastfeeding in months (mean ± SD)8.8 ± 6.34.4 ± 2.513.2 ± 5.9
 Exclusive breastfeeding in months (mean ± SD)2.7 ± 2.03.5 ± 2.11.88 ± 1.54
Exclusive breastfeeding in month categories
 None1044 (22.0)329 (13.8)715 (30.2)
 <3 months1850 (39.0)663 (27.9)1187 (50.2)
 ≥3 months1850 (39.0)1387 (58.3)463 (19.6)
  1. 1Other employment included businesswomen, work at a public house or restaurant, professional employment including being a teacher, nurse, etc., skilled office work, and unskilled employment
  2. 2Household wealth index was created separately for each study