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Table 5 Factors associated with four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits in Tanzania, 1999–2016

From: Trends and factors associated with the utilisation of antenatal care services during the Millennium Development Goals era in Tanzania

Variables1999200520102015–20161999–2016P for trend
OR (95% CI)$OR (95% CI)$OR (95% CI)$OR (95% CI)$OR (95% CI)$
Community-level factors      
 Place of residence      
  Urban1.001.001.001.001.000.313
  Rural0.61 (0.69–5.29)0.70 (0.31–1.56)0.57 (0.17–1.84)0.93 (0.38–2.27)0.77 (0.47–1.29)0.010
Predisposing factors      
Socio-demographic factors      
  Maternal age      
   15–24 years1.001.001.001.001.000.064
   25–34 years1.47 (0.24–9.10)0.52 (0.25–1.07)0.73 (0.26–2.04)0.87 (0.38–1.99)0.73 (0.45–1.16)0.100
   35–49 years2.97 (0.25–35.55)0.89 (0.36–2.23)0.86 (0.26–2.85)1.15 (0.39–3.36)1.05 (0.58–1.89)0.085
  Maternal education      
   No schooling1.001.001.001.001.000.019
   Primary school and above9.48 (1.49–60.45)3.20 (1.55–6.61)2.83 (0.98–8.19)0.78 (0.29–2.10)2.25 (1.39–3.65)0.079
  Household wealth status      
   Poor1.001.001.001.001.000.001
   Middle1.72 (0.21–13.73)2.93 (1.42–6.04)0.79 (0.28–2.21)5.84 (2.11–16.13)2.73 (1.67–4.44)0.232
   Rich2.76 (0.16–48.72)6.52 (2.65–16.07)1.84 (0.43–7.94)2.19 (0.63–7.65)3.14 (1.69–5.83)0.628
  Maternal employment      
   No employment1.001.001.001.001.000.107
   Formal employment1.67 (0.54–3.87)2.58 (0.56–11.82)3.51 (0.42–29.18)1.38 (0.41–4.66)2.07 (0.90–4.76)0.911
   Informal employment2.01 (0.98–4.59)1.67 (0.83–3.35)2.61 (0.94–7.23)1.36 (0.62–2.97)1.84 (1.18–2.87)0.039
Exposure to media      
  Listening to radio      
   No1.001.001.001.001.000.101
   Yes3.17 (0.35–28.40)1.13 (0.55–2.34)2.73 (0.99–7.45)2.44 (1.09–5.49)1.68 (1.06–2.65)0.015
  Reading newspapers/magazines      
   No1.001.001.001.001.000.010
   Yes0.75 (0.54–1.76)0.79 (0.36–1.73)0.84 (0.27–2.58)1.28 (0.55–2.98)0.97 (0.58–1.61)0.254
  Watching television      
   No1.001.001.001.001.000.002
   Yes0.17 (0.02–1.32)1.57 (0.64–3.84)0.47 (0.14–1.62)1.68 (0.62–4.57)1.34 (0.78–2.29)0.737
Enabling factors      
 Distance to the health facilities**      
  Big problem 1.001.001.001.000.214
  Not a big problem 1.17 (0.49–2.80)1.51 (0.29–7.94)1.08 (0.52–2.25)0.96 (0.61–1.51)0.008
 Mother’s autonomy **      
  Involved in household decisions 1.001.001.001.000.989
  Not involved in household decisions 0.32 (0.29–1.46)1.39 (0.57–3.44)1.13 (0.51–2.50)0.75 (0.46–1.24)0.003
Need factors      
 Ever contraceptive use      
  No1.001.001.001.001.000.021
  Yes0.54 (0.42–2.14)0.84 (0.40–1.75)1.16 (0.43–3.14)0.81 (0.38–1.76)0.99 (0.63–1.55)0.163
 Desire to the current pregnancy      
  Desired1.001.001.001.001.000.006
  Not desired0.64 (0.51–0.86)0.45 (0.17–1.22)0.35 (0.73–1.72)0.40 (0.08–1.90)0.38 (0.19–0.79)0.658
  1. $Adjusted for community, socio-demographics, health, enabling and need factors as described in the methods section
  2. **Variables not reported in the 1999 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS)
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