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Table 4 Factors associated with 1–3 antenatal care visits in Tanzania, 1999–2016

From: Trends and factors associated with the utilisation of antenatal care services during the Millennium Development Goals era in Tanzania

Variables19992004–200520102015–20161999–2016P for trend
OR (95% CI)$OR (95 % CI)$OR (95 % CI)$OR (95 % CI)$OR (95 % CI)$
Community-level factors
  Place of residence
   Urban1.001.001.001.001.000.019
   Rural0.95 (0.11–8.46)0.68 (0.30–1.53)0.46 (0.14–1.49)1.16 (0.47–2.85)0.79 (0.48–1.33)0.000
Predisposing factors
Socio-demographic factors
  Maternal age
   15–24 years1.001.001.001.001.000.003
   25–34 years1.20 (0.19–7.57)0.52 (0.25–1.07)0.69 (0.25–1.93)0.80 (0.35–1.83)0.69 (0.43–1.11)0.001
   35–49 years2.93 (0.24–35.67)0.82 (0.32–2.07)0.95 (0.28–3.15)1.20 (0.41–3.51)1.14 (0.63–2.06)0.004
  Maternal education
   No schooling1.001.001.001.001.000.000
   Primary school and above6.38 (0.98–41.68)2.75 (1.31–5.77)2.33 (0.81–6.70)0.59 (0.22–1.58)1.89 (1.17–3.07)0.000
  Household wealth status
   Poor1.001.001.001.001.000.000
   Middle2.22 (0.27–18.18)2.74 (1.31–5.73)0.82 (0.29–2.27)4.40 (1.60–12.16)2.50 (1.54–4.07)0.013
   Rich2.10 (0.11–38.51)4.03 (1.60–10.11)1.32 (0.31–5.72)1.23 (0.35–4.31)1.97 (1.06–3.68)0.058
  Maternal employment
   No employment1.001.001.001.001.000.000
   Formal employment 1.75 (0.37–8.21)2.27 (0.27–18.98)1.32 (0.39–4.49)1.69 (0.73–3.93)0.480
   Informal employment1.75 (0.27–11.21)1.48 (0.73–3.01)2.15 (0.78–5.96)1.34 (0.61–2.95)1.77 (1.13–2.77)0.001
Exposure to media
  Listening to radio
   No1.001.001.001.001.000.002
   Yes2.01(0.22–18.46)1.17 (0.56–2.44)2.61 (0.96–7.10)2.13 (0.95–4.80)1.45 (0.92–2.29)0.000
  Reading newspapers/magazines      
   No1.001.001.001.001.000.000
   Yes 0.75 (0.34–1.66)0.77 (0.25–2.38)1.13 (0.49–2.65)0.84 (0.50–1.39)0.010
  Watching television
   No1.001.07 (0.43–2.67)1.001.001.000.000
   Yes0.14 (0.02–1.12) 0.35 (0.10–1.19)1.48 (0.55–4.03)1.08 (0.63–1.85)0.096
Enabling factors
 Distance to the health facilities**
  Big problem 1.001.001.001.000.014
  Not a big problem 1.54 (0.62–3.79)1.42 (0.28–7.37)1.02 (0.49–2.11)0.92 (0.59–1.45)0.000
 Mother’s autonomy **
  Involved in household decisions 1.001.001.001.000.306
  Not involved in household decisions 0.27 (0.24–0.31)1.19 (0.49–2.94)1.29 (0.58–2.86)0.58 (0.35–0.95)0.000
Need factors
 Ever contraceptive use
  No1.001.001.001.001.000.000
  Yes 0.59 (0.28–1.24)0.86 (0.32–2.34)0.62 (0.29–1.34)0.77 (0.49–1.21)0.006
 Desire to the current pregnancy
  Desired1.001.001.001.001.000.000
  Not desired 0.69 (0.25–1.90)0.44 (0.09–2.13)0.70 (0.15–3.29)0.52 (0.25–1.06)0.306
  1. $Adjusted for community, socio-demographics, health, enabling and need factors as described in the “Methods” section
  2. **Variables not reported in the 1999 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS)
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