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Table 3 Prevalence of four or more antenatal care visits by the study factors in Tanzania, 1999–2016

From: Trends and factors associated with the utilisation of antenatal care services during the Millennium Development Goals era in Tanzania

Variables1999 (N = 1527)2004–2005 (N = 3547)2010 (N = 2364)2015–2016 (N = 3588)1999–2016 (N = 11,026)% change (95% CI), 1999–2016
*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)
Community-level factors      
 Place of residence      
  Urban430 (85.9)911 (71.6)699 (55.2)1351 (64.1)3391 (66.0)− 21.8 (− 28.3, − 15.3)
  Rural1097 (66.6)2636 (59.0)1665 (39.4)2237 (45.3)7635 (50.0)− 21.3 (− 27.1, − 15.4)
Predisposing factors      
Socio-demographic factors      
  Maternal age      
   15–24 years551 (70.5)1180 (61.0)713 (41.6)1167 (50.8)3611 (53.7)− 19.7 (− 25.8, − 13.7)
   25–34 years689 (74.0)1638 (62.2)1065 (44.8)1537 (51.7)4929 (55.3)− 22.3 (− 28.7, − 15.8)
   35–49 years287 (66.1)730 (61.7)585 (41.8)884 (50.0)2487 (51.9)− 16.1 (23.8, − 8.4)
  Maternal education      
   No schooling330 (59.8)793 (54.5)458 (35.1)552 (41.1)2133 (45.8)− 18.7 (− 30.2, − 7.2)
   Primary school or higher1197 (75.0)2755 (64.2)1906 (45.5)3037 (53.3)8894 (56.4)− 21.7 (− 26.1, − 17.4)
  Household wealth status      
   Poor667 (65.0)1346 (57.5)893 (37.0)591 (39.4)3497 (48.0)− 25.5 (− 32.9, − 18.1)
   Middle529 (73.6)1282 (60.5)798 (42.2)889 (57.6)3498 (55.8)− 15.9 (− 22.9, − 8.9)
   Rich238 (88.4)728 (73.6)529 (57.0)646 (70.3)2141 (69.0)− 18.1 (− 24.3, − 11.8)
  Maternal employment      
   No employment291 (73.4)394 (66.0)309 (47.7)642 (57.1)1636 (59.1)− 16.3 (− 32.8, − 0.1)
   Formal employment59 (79.5)157 (78.1)170 (69.0)307 (63.6)692 (69.0)− 15.9 (− 26.9, − 4.8)
   Informal employment292 (81.6)405 (68.1)496 (53.8)870 (58.8)2062 (61.5)− 22.7 (− 29.6, − 15.8)
Exposure to media      
  Listening to radio      
   No582 (65.2)864 (56.2)668 (38.4)735 (43.6)2848 (48.7)− 21.6 (− 29.3, − 13.9)
   Yes943 (75.2)2683 (63.8)1696 (45.2)2854 (53.2)8176 (56.1)− 22.0 (− 27.4, − 16.6)
  Reading newspapers/magazines      
   No534 (71.5)2171 (57.5)1498 (40.1)2011 (46.4)6214 (49.3)− 25.0 (− 30.6, − 19.5)
   Yes535 (84.0)1377 (70.0)857 (49.1)1578 (58.2)4347 (61.5)− 25.8 (− 30.8, − 20.8)
  Watching Television      
   No1207 (68.2)2618 (58.8)1537 (38.8)1745 (45.0)7108 (50.5)− 23.2 (− 28.8, − 17.7)
   Yes320 (85.0)924 (71.7)826 (54.2)1844 (58.4)3914 (61.7)− 26.6 (− 32.7, − 20.5)
Enabling factors      
 Distance to health facilities**      
  Big problem 1319 (57.3)459 (38.2)1509 (47.0)3288 (48.9) 
  Not a big problem 2225 (64.6)1895 (44.4)2079 (54.4)6200 (53.7) 
 Mother’s autonomy in household**      
  Involved in decisions 1806 (63.5)1453 (46.2)2490 (53.8)5749 (54.1) 
  Not involved in decisions 1741 (60.0)911 (38.8)1098 (45.5)3750 (48.9) 
Need factors      
 Ever contraceptive use      
  No1018 (68.3)2375 (58.0)1362 (39.5)1931 (46.5)6686 (50.7)− 21.8 (− 27.6, − 16.0)
  Yes509 (77.4)1172 (70.8)1002 (49.1)1658 (57.3)4340 (60.0)− 20.1 (− 26.2, − 13.9)
 Desire to the current pregnancy      
  Desired the pregnancy1352 (72.0)3349 (62.0)2240 (43.0)3421 (51.2)10362 (54.0)− 20.7 (− 25.9, − 15.5)
  Not desired the pregnancy175 (65.3)198 (57.4)122 (45.2)167 (46.0)663 (53.1)− 19.3 (− 29.5, − 9.1)
  1. *n (%) weighted counts and the weighted total number vary between categories because of missing values
  2. **Variables not reported in the 1999 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS)
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