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Table 2 Prevalence of one to three antenatal care visits by the study factors in Tanzania, 1999–2016

From: Trends and factors associated with the utilisation of antenatal care services during the Millennium Development Goals era in Tanzania

Variables1999 (N = 568)2004–2005 (N = 2028)2010 (N = 3314)2015–2016 (N = 3028)1999–2016 (N = 8,938)% change (95% CI), 1999–2016
*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)
Community-level factors
 Place of residence
  Urban68 (13.6)328 (25.8)556 (44.0)724 (34.4)1677 (32.6)20.7 (14.6, 26.9)
  Rural499 (30.3)1700 (38.0)2473 (58.5)2589 (52.5)7262 (47.5)22.1 (17.4, 26.9)
Predisposing factors
Socio-demographic factors
  Maternal age
   15–24 years215 (27.5)701 (36.3)972 (56.8)1092 (47.5)2981 (44.3)20.0 (14.6, 25.5)
   25–34 years223 (24.0)915 (34.8)1266 (53.2)1380 (46.4)3785 (42.4)22.4 (16.8, 28.0)
   35–49 years129 (29.8)412 (34.8)791 (56.5)841 (47.5)2173 (45.4)17.7 (10.9, 24.5)
  Maternal education
   No schooling182 (33.0)584 (40.1)797 (61.2)744 (55.5)2307 (49.6)22.4 (14.5, 30.3)
   Primary school or higher385 (24.2)1445 (33.7)2231 (53.3)2569 (45.1)6631 (42.0)20.9 (16.7, 25.1)
  Household wealth status
   Poor320 (39.0)907 (38.8)1465 (60.6)1654 (65.2)3551 (48.7)26.2 (20.4, 32.0)
   Middle179 (25.0)780 (36.8)1063 (56.2)692 41.5)2659 (42.4)16.5 (9.9, 23.2)
   Rich31 (11.6)242 (24.5)393 (42.3)968 (27.3)917 (29.5)15.7 (9.5, 21.9)
  Maternal employment
   No employment90 (22.7)164 (27.4)317 (49.0)456 (40.5)1026 (37.1)17.9 (7.2, 28.5)
   Formal employment15 (20.5)40 (20.0)76 (30.7)169 (35.0)299 (29.8)14.5 (3.4, 25.6)
   Informal employment66 (18.4)167 (28.1)418 (45.4)579 (39.2)1230 (36.7)20.8 (13.9, 27.7)
Exposure to media
  Listening to radio
   No271 (30.4)604 (39.3)1021 (58.7)887 (52.7)2782 (47.6)22.2 (16.6, 27.9)
   Yes296 (23.6)1420 (33.8)2005 (53.5)2427 (45.3)6148 (42.2)21.7 (16.5, 26.8)
  Reading newspapers/magazines
   No206 (27.6)1469 (39.0)2157 (57.7)2207 (51.0)6039 (48.0)23.3 (18.1, 28.6)
   Yes100 (15.7)556 (28.2)871 (50.0)1106 (40.8)2634 (37.3)25.1 (20.1, 30.1)
  Watching television
   No513 (29.0)1688 (38.0)2351 (59.3)2040 (52.5)6591 (46.8)23.5 (18.9, 28.1)
   Yes55 (14.6)339 (26.3)678 (44.5)1274 (40.4)2345 (37.0)25.8 (19.8, 31.8)
Enabling factors
 Distance to health facilities**
  Big problem 901 (39.1)694 (57.7)1631 (50.7)3227 (48.0) 
  Not a big problem 1126 (32.7)2325 (54.5)1682 (44.0)5134 (44.5) 
 Mother’s autonomy in household**
  Involved in decisions 971 (34.2)1643 (52.2)2047 (44.2)4662 (43.9) 
  Not involved in decisions 1057 (36.4)1385 (59.0)1266 (52.4)3708 (48.4) 
Need factors
 Contraceptive use
  No427 (28.6)1587 (38.8)2020 (58.5)2121 (51.1)6154 (46.7)22.4 (17.8, 27.1)
  Yes141 (21.5)441 (26.6)1009 (49.5)1193 (41.3)2784 (38.4)19.8 (13.9, 25.7)
 Desire to the current pregnancy
  Desired the pregnancy484 (25.8)1901 (35.2)2884 (55.3)3133 (47.0)8402 (43.8)21.1 (16.8, 25.4)
  Not desired the pregnancy83 (31.1)128 (37.0)142 (52.7)180 (49.6)533 (42.8)18.5 (8.4, 28.5)
  1. *n (%) weighted counts and the weighted total number vary between categories because of missing values
  2. **Variables not reported in the 1999 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS)
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