Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Trends and factors associated with the utilisation of antenatal care services during the Millennium Development Goals era in Tanzania

Variables1999 (N = 3282)2004–2005 (N = 8725)2010 (N = 8176)2015–2016 (N = 10,052)1999–2016 (N = 30,235)
*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)*n (%)
Community-level factors
 Place of residence
  Urban614 (18.7)1691 (19.4)1660 (20.3)2727 (27.1)6692 (22.1)
  Rural2668 (81.3)7034 (80.6)6516 (79.7)7325 (72.9)23,543 (77.9)
Predisposing factors
Socio-demographic factors
  Maternal age
   15–24 years1123 (34.2)2819 (32.3)2488 (30.4)3134 (31.2)9564 (31.6)
   25–34 years1501 (45.7)4231 (48.5)3680 (45.0)4426 (44.0)13,838 (45.8)
   35–49 years659 (20.1)1674 (19.2)2008 (24.6)2492 (24.8)6833 (22.6)
  Maternal education
   No schooling907 (27.6)2318 (26.6)2090 (25.6)2103 (20.9)7419 (24.5)
   Primary school or higher2375 (72.4)6407 (73.4)6085 (74.4)7948 (79.1)22,814 (75.5)
  Household wealth status
   Poor1651 (53.4)3680 (44.3)3917 (50.1)2337 (42.0)11,585 (46.7)
   Middle1097 (35.5)3328 (40.1)2736 (35.0)2090 (37.5)9252 (37.3)
   Rich341 (11.0)1295 (15.6)1171 (15.0)1143 (20.5)3950 (16.0)
  Maternal employment
   No employment591 (49.2)825 (44.2)873 (36.1)1602 (39.0)3890 (40.5)
   Formal employment101 (8.4)254 (13.6)300 (12.4)641 (15.5)1297 (13.5)
   Informal employment510 (42.2)788 (42.2)1246 (51.5)1885 (45.7)4428 (46.0)
Exposure to media
  Listening to radio
   No1452 (44.3)2485 (28.5)2754 (33.7)2576 (25.6)9267 (30.7)
   Yes1827 (55.7)6231 (71.5)5419 (66.3)7476 (74.4)20,953 (69.3)
  Reading newspapers/magazines
   No1205 (58.8)5970 (68.5)5741 (70.3)6415 (63.8)19,331 (66.7)
   Yes844 (41.2)2752 (31.5)2422 (29.7)3635 (36.2)9652 (33.3)
  Watching television
   No2786 (85.0)7003 (80.4)6133 (75.0)5834 (58.0)21,756 (72.0)
   Yes496 (15.0)1713 (19.6)2043 (25.0)4218 (42.0)8470 (28.0)
Enabling factors
 Distance to health facilities**
  Big problem 3603 (41.3)1883 (23.1)4715 (47.0)10,201 (38.0)
  Not a big problem 5115 (58.7)6266 (76.9)5337 (53.0)16,718 (62.0)
 Mother’s autonomy in household**
  Involved in decisions 4219 (48.4)4479 (54.8)6407 (63.7)15,105 (56.0)
  Not involved in decisions 4506 (51.6)3697 (45.2)3645 (36.3)11,848 (44.0)
Need factors
 Ever contraceptive use
  No2324 (70.8)6374 (73.1)5391 (66.0)6214 (61.8)20,303 (67.2)
  Yes958 (29.2)2350 (26.9)2785 (34.0)3838 (38.2)9931 (32.8)
 Desire to the current pregnancy
  Desired the pregnancy2918 (89.0)8278 (95.0)7831 (96.4)9633 (95.8)28,660 (95.0)
  Not desired the pregnancy361 (11.0)438 (5.0)295 (3.6)419 (4.2)1513 (5.0)
  1. *n (%) weighted count and proportion for each outcome variable by study factors
  2. **Variables not reported in the 1999 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS)
\