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Table 1 Results of urine filtering examination 2010-2011

From: Hematobium schistosomiasis control for health management of labor force generation at Nkhotakota and Lilongwe in the Republic of Malawi—assumed to be related to occupational risk

  2010 2011
June August P value June August P value
Number of Subjects Before 1st MDA Number of Subjects 8 weeks after 1st MDA Number of Subjects Before 2nd MDA Number of Subjects 8 weeks after 2nd MDA
Egg positive number Egg positive prevalence (95% CI) Egg positive number Egg positive prevalence (95% CI) Egg positive number Egg positive prevelence (95% CI) Egg positive number Egg positive prevalence (95% CI)
Total 242 83 34.3 (28.5-40.5) 260 33 12.7** (9.2-17.3) P<0.01 315 46 14.6 (11.1-19.0) 350 24 6.9** (4.6-10.0) P<0.01
Male 108 46 42.6 (33.6-52.1) 123 16 13.0** (8.1-20.2) P<0.01 152 25 16.4 (11.4-23.2) 172 9 5.2** (2.8-9.7) P<0.01
Female 134 37 27.6 (20.7-35.8) 137 17 12.4 (8.3-20.0) P<0.01 163 21 12.9 (8.5-19.0) 178 15 8.4 (5.1-13.5) P=0.181
Age group 〜4 Male 5 3 60.0 (22.8-88.4) 6 0 0.0* (0.0-39.5) P<0.05 11 3 27.3 (9.6-56.8) 12 1 8.3 (1.5-35.7) P=0.231
Female 4 0 0.0 (0.0-49.5) 4 0 0.0 (0.0-49.5) - 4 1 25.0 (4.5-70.3) 6 1 16.7 (3.0-56.7) P=0.322
Total 9 3 33.3 (11.9-64.8) 10 0 0.0* (0.0-28.2) P<0.05 15 4 26.7 (10.8-52.2) 18 2 11.1 (3.1-33.1) P=0.249
5〜9 Male 25 8 32.1 (17.1-51.8) 26 0 0.0 (0.0-13.1) P<0.01 31 5 16.1 (7.0-32.8) 32 2 6.3 (1.7-20.3) P=0.212
Female 29 10 34.5 (19.8-52.8) 30 2 6.7** (1.7-20.3) P<0.01 29 6 20.7 (9.8-38.6) 27 5 18.5 (8.1-36.9) P=0.838
Total 54 18 33.4 (22.1-46.8) 56 2 3.6** (1.0-12.2) P<0.h01 60 11 18.3 (10.5-30.1) 59 7 11.9 (5.8-22.7) P=0.325
10〜14 Male 22 11 50 (30.6-69.4) 24 3 12.5** (4.3-31.2) P<0.01 24 8 33.3 (17.9-53.5) 21 3 14.3 (4.9-34.9) P=0.138
Female 26 7 26.9 (13.6-46.3) 26 5 19.2 (8.4-38.1) P=0.510 28 7 25.0 (12.6-43.6) 32 2 6.3* (1.7-20.3) P<0.05
Total 48 18 37.5 (25.1-51.8) 50 8 16.0* (8.3-28.7) P<0.05 52 15 28.8 (18.2-42.4) 53 5 9.4* (4.1-20.4) P<0.05
15〜19 Male 11 5 45.5 (21.1-72.2) 14 3 21.4 (7.5-47.9) P=0.201 14 2 14.3 (4.0-40.2) 17 0 0.0 (0.0-18.7) P=0.107
Female 10 3 30.0 (10.7-60.6) 14 3 21.4 (7.5-47.9) P=0.632 14 4 28.6 (11.6-54.9) 14 1 7.1 (1.3-31.8) P=0.139
Total 21 8 38.1 (20.6-59.3) 28 6 21.4 (10.1-39.7) P=0.201 28 6 21.4 (10.1-39.7) 31 1 3.2* (0.6-16.4) P<0.05
20〜29 Male 15 8 53.3 (29.9-75.4) 19 4 21.1 (8.4-43.6) P=0.051 21 2 9.5 (2.6-29.2) 23 2 8.7 (2.4-27.0) P=0.924
Female 25 11 44.0 (26.5-63.1) 27 3 11.1** (3.8-28.3) P<0.01 30 1 3.3 (0.6-16.9) 29 2 6.9 (1.9-22.2) P=0.533
Total 40 19 47.5 (32.8-62.6) 46 7 15.2 (7.5-28.4) P<0.01 51 3 5.9 (2.0-16.1) 52 4 7.7 (3.0-18.3) P=0.715
30〜39 Male 14 5 35.7 (16.2-61.5) 16 4 25.0 (10.1-49.7) P=0.523 16 2 12.5 (3.5-36.3) 18 1 5.6 (1.0-26.0) P=0.476
Female 15 5 33.3 (15.1-58.5) 18 1 5.6* (1.0-26.0) P<0.05 18 1 5.6 (1.0-26.0) 18 2 11.1 (3.1-33.1) P=0.546
Total 29 10 34.5 (19.8-52.8) 34 5 14.7 (6.4-30.3) P=0.066 34 3 8.8 (3.0-23.1) 36 3 8.3 (2.8-22.0) P=0.942
40〜 Male 16 6 37.5 (18.3-61.6) 18 2 11.1 (3.1-33.1) P=0.070 24 3 12.5 (4.3-31.2) 25 0 0.0 (0.0-13.6) P=0.068
Female 25 1 4.0 (0.7-19.8) 18 3 16.7 (5.8-39.5) P=0.158 29 1 3.4 (0.6-17.4) 27 2 7.4 (2.0-23.6) P=0.511
Total 41 7 17.1 (8.5-31.4) 36 5 13.9 (6.0-28.8) P=0.701 53 4 7.5 (2.9-18.0) 52 2 3.8 (1.0-13.1) P=0.414
  1. (*p<0.05, **p<0.01)