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Table 2 Determinants of introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft foods and minimum dietary diversity in Tanzania, 2004–2016

From: Trends and determinants of complementary feeding practices in Tanzania, 2004–2016

  Introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft foods (6–8 months, n = 1349) Minimum dietary diversity (n = 7705)
%* COR (95% CI) P value AOR* (95% CI) P value %* COR (95% CI) P value AOR* (95% CI) P value
Socioeconomic
 Mother’s employment
  Not working 84.5 1.00   1.00   25.4 1.00   1.00  
  Working 86.7 1.28 (0.88–1.87) 0.194 1.64 (0.90–2.97) 0.100 26.8 1.11 (0.96–1.28) 0.131 1.21 (1.10–1.49) 0.029
 Mother’s education
  No schooling 85.0 1.00   1.00   19.7 1.00   1.00  
  Primary education 86.7 1.09 (0.74–1.62) 0.645 1.24 (0.73–2.11) 0.414 26.5 1.57 (1.36–1.82) < 0.001 1.28 (1.06–1.53) 0.007
  Secondary and higher 86.6 1.54 (0.86–2.75) 0.138 1.51 (0.56–4.06) 0.409 41.7 3.27 (2.71–3.94) < 0.001 1.57 (1.17–2.08) 0.002
 Father’s education
  No schooling 82.2 1.00   1.00   20.01 1.00   1.00  
  Primary education 86.9 1.42 (0.93–2.16) 0.096 1.27 (0.71–2.29) 0.408 26.1 1.57 (1.32–1.87) < 0.001 1.06 (0.87–1.31) 0.519
  Secondary and higher 85.5 1.74 (0.99–3.07) 0.053 1.50 (0.60–3.77) 0.381 40.2 3.04 (2.47–3.75) < 0.001 1.36 (1.03–1.81) 0.029
 Household wealth
  Poor 86.2 1.00   1.00   18.7 1.00   1.00  
  Middle 86.5 1.07 (0.74–1.53) 0.712 0.93 (0.56–1.56) 0.803 27.3 1.72 (1.51–1.95) < 0.001 1.35 (1.16–1.59) < 0.001
  Rich 86.5 1.12 (0.74–1.53) 0.614 0.46 (0.17–1.20) 0.114 47.1 4.09 (3.48–4.79) < 0.001 3.20 (2.48–4.14) < 0.001
Health service
 Place of delivery
  Home 84.5 1.00   1.00   20.8 1.00   1.00  
  Health facility 87.5 1.29 (0.92–1.80) 0.128 0.36 (0.47–0.92) 0.033 31.1 1.95 (1.73–2.18) < 0.001 1.74 (1.29–2.34) < 0.001
 Postnatal visits
  None 84.5 1.00   1.00   26.6 1.00   1.00  
  0–2 days 92.7 1.42 (0.81–2.48) 0.211 2.86 (1.21–6.72) 0.016 29.3 1.78 (1.38–2.29) < 0.001 1.24 (0.92–1.67) 0.149
  3–42 days 88.1 0.94 (0.51–1.76) 0.880 0.74 (0.26–2.13) 0.584 24.6 1.82 (1.41–2.35) < 0.001 1.33 (1.00–1.79) 0.052
 Antenatal visits
  None 89.5 1.00   1.00   17.8 1.00   1.00  
  1–3 86.6 1.13 (0.42–3.04) 0.797 1.74 (0.56–5.37) 0.334 23.2 1.51 (0.99–2.30) 0.051 1.28 (0.80–2.05) 0.302
  4+ 85.6 1.25 (0.46–3.36) 0.651 1.34 (0.43–4.12) 0.607 30.2 1.99 (1.31–3.03) 0.001 1.40 (0.88–2.25) 0.152
 Delivery assistance
  Health professional 87.6 1.00   1.00   35.9 1.00   1.00  
  Traditional birth attendance 81.7 0.46 (0.25–0.87) 0.017 0.40 (0.18–0.87) 0.022 22.7 0.50 (0.41–0.62) < 0.001 1.21 (0.85–1.73) 0.282
  Other untrained personnel 85.0 0.81 (0.52–1.25) 0.347 0.90 (0.53–1.50) 0.703 22.8 0.56 (0.48–0.64) < 0.001 1.27 (0.95–1.71) 0.098
  1. %* is the proportion of weighted cases by the study factors. COR crude odds ratio; AOR adjusted odds ratio: adjusted for maternal marital status, sex of the baby sex and gender, birth order and interval, geographical region, place of residence and maternal age. In the models of socioeconomic factors, an additional adjustment was made for health service factors as confounders of the association between socioeconomic factors and complementary feeding indicators. A similar strategy was used in models of health service factors, where additional adjustment for socioeconomic factors was performed