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Table 2 Coefficient and standard error of the final SEM model of risk factors for diabetes in the STEPwise approach to surveillance 2015 survey—Punjab, India among adults aged 18–69 years

From: Structural equation modeling to identify the risk factors of diabetes in the adult population of North India

Variables Coefficient Standard error p value 95% CI lower upper
Direct effects
Fasting blood glucose
 Waist circumference 0.177 0.051 0.001 0.076 0.278
 Systolic blood pressure 0.107 0.035 0.003 0.038 0.177
 Triglyceride 0.046 0.008 < 0.001 0.030 0.062
 Alcohol use 0 (No path)    
 Weekly fruit intake 0 (No path)    
 Age 0.464 0.056 < 0.001 0.353 0.574
 Urban residence 3.124 1.337 0.020 0.502 5.746
 Family h/o diabetes 4.473 1.593 0.005 1.350 7.597
Waist circumference
 Alcohol use 1.521 0.605 0.05 0.305 2.764
 Weekly fruit intake −0.044 0.018 0.01 − 0.079 − 0.009
 Age 0.441 0.020 < 0.001 0.401 0.481
 Family h/o diabetes 4.104 0.655 < 0.001 2.819 5.389
Triglycerides
 Age 0.264 0.127 0.03 0.015 0.513
Systolic blood pressure
 Waist circumference 0.266 0.028 < 0.001 0.210 0.321
 Alcohol use 10.402 1.100 < 0.001 8.245 12.559
 Weekly fruit intake 0 (No path)    
 Age 0.491 0.030 < 0.001 0.431 0.551
 Family h/o diabetes 0 (No path)    
Indirect effects
Fasting blood glucose
 Waist circumference 0.028 0.003 < 0.001 0.022 0.034
 Systolic blood pressure 0 (No path)    
 Triglyceride 0 (No path)    
 Alcohol use 1.430 0.428 0.001 0.591 2.268
 Weekly fruit intake −0.009 0.004 0.034 −0.017 −0.001
 Age 0.156 0.029 < 0.001 0.098 0.213
 Urban residence 0 (No path)    
 Family h/o diabetes 0.844 0.247 0.001 0.359 1.329
Waist circumference
 Alcohol use 0 (No path)    
 Weekly fruit intake 0 (No path)    
 Age 0 (No path)    
 Family h/o diabetes 0 (No path)    
Triglycerides
 Age 0 (No path)    
Systolic blood pressure
 Waist circumference 0 (No path)    
 Alcohol use 0.404 0.216 0.061 − 0.018 0.827
 Weekly fruit intake − 0.012 0.005 0.016 − 0.021 − 0.002
 Age 0.117 0.014 < 0.001 0.090 0.144
 Family h/o diabetes 1.09 0.210 < 0.001 0.679 1.501
Total effects
Fasting blood glucose
 Waist circumference 0.206 0.051 < 0.001 0.105 0.306
 Systolic blood pressure 0.107 0.035 0.003 0.038 0.177
 Triglyceride 0.046 0.008 < 0.001 0.030 0.062
 Alcohol use 1.430 0.428 0.001 0.591 2.268
 Weekly fruit intake − 0.009 0.004 0.034 − 0.017 − 0.001
 Age 0.619 0.049 < 0.001 0.522 0.716
 Urban residence 3.124 1.338 0.02 0.502 5.746
 Family h/o diabetes 5.317 1.586 0.001 2.208 8.427
Waist circumference
 Alcohol use 1.521 0.655 0.05 0.234 2.915
 Weekly fruit intake − 0.044 0.018 0.013 − 0.079 − 0.009
 Age 0.441 0.020 < 0.001 0.401 0.481
 Family h/o diabetes 4.104 0.656 < 0.001 2.819 5.389
Triglycerides
 Age 0.264 0.127 0.038 0.015 0.513
Systolic blood pressure
 Waist circumference 0.266 0.028 < 0.001 0.210 0.321
 Alcohol use 10.806 1.120 < 0.001 8.611 13.001
 Weekly fruit intake − 0.012 0.005 0.016 − 0.021 − 0.002
 Age 0.608 0.028 < 0.001 0.552 0.664
 Family h/o diabetes 1.090 0.210 < 0.001 0.679 1.501
  1. SEM structural equation modeling, SEM model endogenous variables are waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose; exogenous variables are alcohol use, weekly fruit intake, place of residence, age, family history, education and occupation, CI confidence interval