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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants and the prevalence of diabetes by sociodemographic and clinical factors

From: Structural equation modeling to identify the risk factors of diabetes in the adult population of North India

Characteristics Total,
N
Diabetes,
n (%)
p value
Total 2495 207 (8.3)  
Age group    0.001
 18–24 years 430 6(1.4)  
 25–44 years 1289 61(4.7)  
 45–69 years 776 140(18.0)  
Gender    0.9
 Male 907 76(8.4)  
 Female 1588 131(8.2)  
Residence    0.11
 Rural 1529 116(7.6)  
 Urban 966 91(9.4)  
Social group    0.05
 SC 954 61(6.4)  
 Other backward caste 342 35(10.2)  
 General 1155 107(9.3)  
Educational status    0.07
 Illiterate 575 51(8.9)  
 Up to primary education 599 63(10.3)  
 Up to secondary education 1065 74(6.9)  
 Higher education 256 19(7.4)  
Marital status    0.001
 Never married 413 5(1.2)  
 Currently married 1869 172(9.2)  
 Separated/divorced/widowed 195 29(14.9)  
Current smokinga    0.7
 Yes 101 8(7.9)  
 No 2394 199(8.3)  
Current alcohol useb    0.1
 Yes 386 40(10.4)  
 No 2109 167(7.9)  
Hypertensionc    0.001
 Yes 1031 147(14.3)  
 No 1464 60(4.1)  
> = 5 servings of fruits and vegetables dailyd    0.4
 Yes 109 10(9.2)  
 No 2386 197(8.3)  
Obesitye    0.001
 Yes 1830 96(14.4)  
 No 665 111(6.1)  
Family history of diabetes    0.001
 Yes 537 64(11.9)  
 No 1925 142(7.4)  
Family history of raised cholesterol    0.9
 Yes 126 11(8.7)  
 No 2336 195(8.3)  
Abdominal obesityf    0.001
 Yes 1415 165(11.7)  
 No 1080 42(3.9)  
Hypertriglyceridemiag    0.006
 Yes 656 136(7.4)  
 No 1839 71(10.8)  
Physical activityh    0.008
 Above minimal recommended 140 04 (3.0)  
 Below minimal recommended 2355 203(8.6)  
  1. SC scheduled caste
  2. aOne who smoked tobacco in the last 30 days
  3. bOne who has consumed alcohol in the last year
  4. cSBP ≥ 140 and/or DBP ≥ 90 or currently on medication
  5. dOne serving of vegetable was considered to be one cup of raw green leafy vegetables or 1/2 cup of other vegetables (cooked or chopped raw). One serving of fruit was considered to be one medium size piece of apple, banana or orange, 1/2 cup of chopped, canned fruit, or 1/2 cup of fruit juice
  6. eBody mass index ≥ 27.5 kg/m2
  7. f≥90 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females
  8. gSerum triglyceride > 150 mg/dl
  9. hMinimum duration of physical activity per week recommended by WHO as 150 min of moderate intensity physical activity or 75 min of vigorous intensity physical activity or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity achieving at least 600 MET-minutes per week with each activity performed in bouts of at least 10-min duration