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Table 2 Correlates of pneumonia deaths compared to other causes of deaths in children aged 4 weeks to 59 months in rural Bangladesh (n = 245)

From: Pneumonia mortality and healthcare utilization in young children in rural Bangladesh: a prospective verbal autopsy study

Variables Pneumonia, n = 81 (%) Other causes of death, n = 164 (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)***
Age
 4 weeks–5 months 47 (58.0) 38 (23.2) 8.9 (4.4–18.0)* 5.5 (2.5–12.0)*
 6–11 months 20 (24.7) 25 (15.2) 5.1 (2.6–13.0)* 3.0 (1.2–7.5)*
 12–59 months 14 (17.3) 101 (61.6) 1 1
Sex
 Male 41 (50.6) 85 (51.8) 0.5 (0.6–1.6) NA
 Female 40 (49.4) 79 (48.2) 1 1
History of medical condition (multiple frequency)
 Heart disease 14 (17.3) 14 (8.5) 2.2 (1.0–5.0)* 1.4 (0.6–3.0)
 Malnutrition 5 (6.2) 7 (4.3) 1.5 (0.5–4.8)
 Others (liver disease, kidney disease, cancer, asthma, diarrhea, etc.) 10 (12.3) 17 (10.4) 1.2 (0.4–2.8)
 None 52 (64.1) 126 (76.8) 1 1
Small at birth (< 1 year), n = 131 21/67 (31.3) 16/64 (25.0) 1.4 (0.6–3.0) NA
Premature (< 37 weeks) (< 1 year), n = 131 15/67 (22.4) 4/64 (6.3) 4.3 (1.4–13.9)* NA
Symptoms noted during last illness (multiple frequency)
 Fever 44 (54.3) 54 (32.3) 2.5 (1.4–4.3)* 0.9 (0.4–2.2)
 Vomiting 13 (16.0) 34 (20.7) 0.7 (0.4–1.5)
 Not passed stool 5 (6.2) 22 (13.4) 0.4 (0.2–1.2)
 Unconscious 6 (7.4) 15 (9.1) 0.8 (0.3–2.1)
 Convulsion 9 (11.1) 17 (10.4) 1.1 (0.5–2.5)
 Others 39 (48.1) 67 (40.9) 1.3 (0.8–2.3)
 None 35 (43.2) 73 (44.5) 1 1
Duration of illness that leads to death (days), n = 238⁑
 ≥ 11 30 (38.0) 45 (28.3) 7.6 (3.1–18.7)* 2.5 (0.8–7.4)
 2–10 42 (53.2) 34 (21.4) 14.1 (5.8–34.6)* 5.8 (2.1–16.1)*
 0–1 7 (8.9) 80 (50.3) 1 1
Sought care for illness that leads to death
 Yes 74 (91.4) 89 (54.3) 8.9 (3.9–20.5)* 3.4 (1.1–10.1)*
 No 7 (8.6) 75 (45.7) 1 1
Sought care a number of days after onset of the disease (days)
 ≥ 2 39 (48.1) 32 (19.5) 12.4 (5.0–30.7)* NA
 0–1 35 (43.2) 57 (34.8) 7.0 (2.9–16.7)*
 Did not seek treatment for illness 7 (8.6) 75 (45.7) 1
Admission to a hospital/health facility, n = 163‡
 Yes 54 (73.0) 56 (62.2) 1.6 (0.8–3.2) NA
 No 20 (27.0) 34 (37.8) 1
Sources of treatment (multiple frequency), n = 163‡
 Home 5 (6.8) 4 (4.5) 1.5 (0.4–5.9) NA
 Indigenous healer 12 (16.2) 15 (16.9) 0.9 (0.4–2.2)
 Government clinic/hospital 17 (23.0) 29 (32.6) 0.6 (0.3–1.2)
 Private clinic/hospital 62 (83.8) 68 (76.4) 1.6 (0.7–3.5)
 Pharmacies/drug stores 22 (29.7) 24 (27.0) 1.1 (0.6–2.3)
Number of sources accessed to seek treatment
 ≥ 3 14 (17.3) 15 (9.1) 10.0 (3.5–29.0)* NA
 2 24 (29.6) 30 (18.3) 8.6 (3.3–22.0)*
 1 36 (44.4) 44 (26.8) 8.8 (3.6–21.4)*
 0 (not sought treatment) 7 (8.6) 75 (45.7) 1 1
Place of death
 Hospital 33 (40.7) 29 (17.7) 3.2 (1.8–5.8)* NA
 Home 48 (59.3) 135 (82.3) 1
  1. Children who died from sepsis were exlcuded from the analysis
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, NA not applicable (those variables not included in the mutivariable model)
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. Only available sample, n = 131
  5. ⁑Only available sample, n = 238
  6. ‡Only available sample, n = 163
  7. ***Model 1: dependent variable; causes of death (1 = pneumonia, 0 = other causes); variables included in the model were age at death, previous diagnosed illness (used as binominal variable—yes or no), symptoms noted during final illness (used as binominal variable—yes or no), duration of illness that leads to death, and sought care for illness that leads to death