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Table 1 Summary of characteristics (differences and similarities) between HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations

From: Professional care delivery or traditional birth attendants? The impact of the type of care utilized by mothers on under-five mortality of their children

Variable (N = 12, 225) Frequency Valid percentage (%) (t) and (χ2)
   HIV+ HIV− HIV+ HIV−  
Type of residence Urban 1014 4752 48.66 47.85 103.151***
Rural 1098 5359 51.34 52.15 17.117***
Total 2113 10, 112    
Religion Catholic 369 1792 17.47 17.72 17.011***
Protestant 1722 8209 81.50 81.19 13.060***
Muslim 10 50 0.45 0.49 1.251**
Other 12 62 0.58 0.60 0.015***
Total 2113 10,112    
Education No education 165 1187 7.8 11.74 23.110***
Primary 951 5747 45.54 56.83 9.463***
Secondary 845 2811 40.50 27.80 16.717***
Higher 128 404 6.11 4.01 76.701***
Total 2113 10,112    
Wealth index Poorest 374 1742 17.72 17.23 121.123***
Poorer 364 1866 17.23 18.45 10.104***
Middle 464 2154 21.50 21.24 12.330***
Richer 467 2053 21.37 20.91 8.145***
Richest 468 2225 22.17 22.18 109.204***
Total 2113 10,112    
Age Age 15–25 972 4045 46 40.61 111.020**
Age 26–35 592 3235 28 32.26 20.511***
Age 36–45 549 2732 26 27.14 0.500**
Total 2113 10,112    
Health insurance No health insurance 2066 9808 97.82 97.40 91.166**
With health insurance 46 303 2.18 2.60 76.661***
Total 2113 10,112    
Availability of drugs in facility Big problem 586 4142 27.74 40.96 10.221***
Not a big problem 1527 5970 72.26 59.04 12.770***
Total 2113 10,112    
Distance to facilitates Big problem 795 4348 37.64 43.95 2.091***
Not a big problem 1318 5764 63.26 59.05 12.413**
Total 2113 10,112    
Attitude of health professionals Big problem 549 3369 26.40 33.32 8.543***
Not a big problem 1564 6743 73.60 66.68 4.500***
Total 2113 10,112    
Choice of care at antenatal TBA 486 2375 23.00 23.49 0.828***
Health professional 1527 7737 77.00 76.51 2.798***
Total 2113 10,112    
Choice of care at birth TBA 448 2124 21.10 21.00 16.223***
Health professional 1665 7989 78.90 79.00 18.123***
Total 2113 10,112    
Choice of care at postnatal TBA 507 2395 24.01 23.68 13.352***
Health professional 1606 7718 75.09 76.32 19.113***
Total 2113 10,112    
Child is still alive Yes 1860 9696 88.02 95.89 103.991***
No 253 416 11.98 4.11 11.441***
Total 2113 10,112    
  1. Reported p values are based on t tests of means for continuous variables and chi-squares for proportions/categorical variables
  2. ***p < 0.01
  3. **p < 0.05
  4. *p < 0.10