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Table 2 Risk factors associated to seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii in girls and women of childbearing age group

From: Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in Iranian women and risk factors of the disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Demographic factors Total individuals Positive cases Pooled estimation (%) I 2 P valuea
Age 0.62
 ≤20 years 2296 1040 45 (95% CI = 30 to 60) 98.91
 >20 years 4370 2294 39 (95% CI = 23 to 56) 98.49
Contact with cat 0.04
 Yes 1775 474 30 (95% CI = 24 to 37) 87.44
 No 3898 815 21 (95% CI = 16 to 26) 93.78
Contact with other animals 0.41
 Yes 657 182 26 (95% CI = 18 to 35) 82.33
 No 1443 295 21 (95% CI = 12 to 30) 94.98
Contact to meat 0.98
 Yes 646 204 28 (95% CI = 16 to 42) 89.59
 No 339 82 23 (95% CI = 19 to 28) 96.53
Meat consumption 0.12
 Undercooked 1755 466 34 (95% CI = 23 to 46) 95.33
 Cooked 2209 381 17 (95% CI = 12 to 22) 89.25
Raw vegetable/fruit consumption 0.25
 Yes 2645 631 24 (95% CI = 17 to 31) 94.49
 No   47 17 (95% CI = 9 to 27) 71.32
Milk consumption 0.17
 Pasteurized 1264 276 21 (95% CI = 8 to 38) 97.87
 Unpasteurized 95 34 45 (95% CI = 19 to 72) 78.93
Educational status 0.37
 Illiterate 211 114 63 (95% CI = 37 to 86) 91.70  
 Junior/senior 1064 553 50 (95% CI = 30 to 70) 97.73  
 High school 987 555 52 (95% CI = 24 to 80) 98.89  
 Diploma/university 863 320 47 (95% CI = 18 to 77) 98.80  
Occupational group 0.37
 Employee 572 340 53 (95% CI = 33 to 74) 99.17  
 Housewife 2389 1336 52 (95% CI = 30 to 73) 95.28  
 Students 418 133 83 (95% CI = 16 to 63) 95.95  
Wearing gloves during cutting meat 0.47
 Yes 250 31 12 (95% CI = 8 to 17) 96.78  
 No 756 137 18 (95% CI = 15 to 20) 96.78  
Washing vegetable/fruit 0.65
 Water 573 176 27 (95% CI = 12 to 46) 95.36  
 Antiseptic 705 107 19 (95% CI = 10 to 31) 89.76  
Residence 0.99
 Urban 5137 2011 33 (95% CI = 19 to 49) 99.27  
 Rural 2924 1213 33 (95% CI = 22 to 46) 97.53  
  1. aMeta-regression analysis