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Table 2 Summary table of articles in this review

From: Eco-social and behavioural determinants of diarrhoea in under-five children of Nepal: a framework analysis of the existing literature

Sn Author, year Study details Key findings
1 Joshi A, Shrestha RPB, 2012 [11] Cross-sectional study involving 100 children of under 5 years • Children between 6 and 23 months of age are more susceptible to diarrhoea.
• Bloody diarrhoea was more common in children between 12 and 23 months of age.
• Unsafe drinking water and lack of sanitary toilet are associated with childhood diarrhoea.
• Occurrence of diarrhoea was lesser among children from higher wealth quintiles.
2 Ansari S, Sherchand JB, Parajuli K, Paudyal BM, Adhikari RP, Shrestha S et al., 2012 [12] Cross-sectional study involving 525 children of under 5 years • Occurrence of diarrhoea was more in children under 24 months.
• Parasitic infection was higher among children between 6 and 24 months.
3 Strand TA, Sharma PR, Gjessing HK, Ulak M, Chandyo RK, Adhikari RK et al., 2012 [13] Randomised controlled trial involving 335 children of 6–35 months of age • Children between 6 and 23 months are more at risk for diarrhoea.
• Children that are not breastfed are more at risk for diarrhoea occurrence and the extended duration of the episode.
4 Pokhrel S, Snow R, Dong H, Hidayat B, Flessa S, Sauerborn R, 2005 [16] Secondary data review from national survey involving 8112 children under 15 years of age • Male children are more likely to be taken healthcare during illness.
5 Langford RM. 2009 [19] Community trial (PhD thesis); research included 88 children between 3 and 12 months • Hand-washing practice among mothers was low after using the toilet, cleaning the child’s bottom, before handling food and before feeding the child.
• Mothers washed hands only when visible contamination of faecal matter was seen.
• Some mothers preferred to just wipe off the dirt without washing hands.
6 Rhee V, Mullany LC, Khatry SK, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Darmstadt GL, et al. 2008 [20] Cohort study involving 23,662 newborns • Mortality risk was lower among newborn whose mother or attendant washed hands regularly.
7 Ansari M, Ibrahim MIM, Shankar PR, 2011 [24] Cross-sectional study involving 130 mothers with children of <5 years • Mother with higher education had better knowledge on prevention of diarrhoea.
• Mothers unaware about the association of the use of toilet and drinking safe water with the occurrence of diarrhoea.
8 Curtale F, Siwakoti B, Lagrosa C, LaRaja M, Guerra R, 1995 [29] Comparative cross-sectional study involving 1443 mothers with children of <5 years of age and 208 community health volunteers • Trained community health volunteers were effective in control of diarrhoea among the under-five children.
9 Ansari M, Izham M, Ibrahim M, Hassali MA, Shankar PR, 2011 [32] Qualitative study involving 20 mothers • Supernatural causes (witchcraft) linked with occurrence of diarrhoea among children.
• Some mothers believe in the use of traditional healers for treating diarrhoea.
• Lack of cleanliness was linked with diarrhoea by the mothers.
10 Ansari M, Palaian S, Ibrahim MIM, 2009 [33] Review • Cultural belief of supernatural powers in childhood diarrhoea exists in Nepal.
• Traditional practice of fluid restriction and decreased breastfeeding during diarrhoea and use of herbs added to prolong the diarrhoeal episodes among children in Nepal.
11 Stapleton MC, 1989 [34] Cross-sectional study among 320 health and developmental workers • Beliefs regarding types of food causing diarrhoea prevailed in the community.
• The concept of ‘hot’ food and ‘cold’ food linked with diarrhoea.
• Evil spirits, frights, bad spells or gods were also linked with the occurrence of diarrhoea.