|Sn||Author, year||Study details||Key findings|
|1||Joshi A, Shrestha RPB, 2012 ||Cross-sectional study involving 100 children of under 5 years||
• Children between 6 and 23 months of age are more susceptible to diarrhoea.|
• Bloody diarrhoea was more common in children between 12 and 23 months of age.
• Unsafe drinking water and lack of sanitary toilet are associated with childhood diarrhoea.
• Occurrence of diarrhoea was lesser among children from higher wealth quintiles.
|2||Ansari S, Sherchand JB, Parajuli K, Paudyal BM, Adhikari RP, Shrestha S et al., 2012 ||Cross-sectional study involving 525 children of under 5 years||
• Occurrence of diarrhoea was more in children under 24 months.|
• Parasitic infection was higher among children between 6 and 24 months.
|3||Strand TA, Sharma PR, Gjessing HK, Ulak M, Chandyo RK, Adhikari RK et al., 2012 ||Randomised controlled trial involving 335 children of 6–35 months of age||
• Children between 6 and 23 months are more at risk for diarrhoea.|
• Children that are not breastfed are more at risk for diarrhoea occurrence and the extended duration of the episode.
|4||Pokhrel S, Snow R, Dong H, Hidayat B, Flessa S, Sauerborn R, 2005 ||Secondary data review from national survey involving 8112 children under 15 years of age||• Male children are more likely to be taken healthcare during illness.|
|5||Langford RM. 2009 ||Community trial (PhD thesis); research included 88 children between 3 and 12 months||
• Hand-washing practice among mothers was low after using the toilet, cleaning the child’s bottom, before handling food and before feeding the child.|
• Mothers washed hands only when visible contamination of faecal matter was seen.
• Some mothers preferred to just wipe off the dirt without washing hands.
|6||Rhee V, Mullany LC, Khatry SK, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Darmstadt GL, et al. 2008 ||Cohort study involving 23,662 newborns||• Mortality risk was lower among newborn whose mother or attendant washed hands regularly.|
|7||Ansari M, Ibrahim MIM, Shankar PR, 2011 ||Cross-sectional study involving 130 mothers with children of <5 years||
• Mother with higher education had better knowledge on prevention of diarrhoea.|
• Mothers unaware about the association of the use of toilet and drinking safe water with the occurrence of diarrhoea.
|8||Curtale F, Siwakoti B, Lagrosa C, LaRaja M, Guerra R, 1995 ||Comparative cross-sectional study involving 1443 mothers with children of <5 years of age and 208 community health volunteers||• Trained community health volunteers were effective in control of diarrhoea among the under-five children.|
|9||Ansari M, Izham M, Ibrahim M, Hassali MA, Shankar PR, 2011 ||Qualitative study involving 20 mothers||
• Supernatural causes (witchcraft) linked with occurrence of diarrhoea among children.|
• Some mothers believe in the use of traditional healers for treating diarrhoea.
• Lack of cleanliness was linked with diarrhoea by the mothers.
|10||Ansari M, Palaian S, Ibrahim MIM, 2009 ||Review||
• Cultural belief of supernatural powers in childhood diarrhoea exists in Nepal.|
• Traditional practice of fluid restriction and decreased breastfeeding during diarrhoea and use of herbs added to prolong the diarrhoeal episodes among children in Nepal.
|11||Stapleton MC, 1989 ||Cross-sectional study among 320 health and developmental workers||
• Beliefs regarding types of food causing diarrhoea prevailed in the community.|
• The concept of ‘hot’ food and ‘cold’ food linked with diarrhoea.
• Evil spirits, frights, bad spells or gods were also linked with the occurrence of diarrhoea.